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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Controls, Diagnostics, and Instrumentation

A Novel Fuel Performance Index for Low-Temperature Combustion Engines Based on Operating Envelopes in Light-Duty Driving Cycle Simulations

[+] Author and Article Information
Kyle E. Niemeyer

School of Mechanical, Industrial,
and Manufacturing Engineering,
Oregon State University,
Corvallis, OR 97330
e-mail: Kyle.Niemeyer@oregonstate.edu

Shane R. Daly

School of Mechanical, Industrial,
and Manufacturing Engineering,
Oregon State University,
Corvallis, OR 97330
e-mail: dalys@onid.oregonstate.edu

William J. Cannella

Chevron Energy Technology Company,
Richmond, CA 94802
e-mail: bijc@chevron.com

Christopher L. Hagen

School of Mechanical, Industrial,
and Manufacturing Engineering,
Oregon State University,
Bend, OR 97701
e-mail: Chris.Hagen@oregonstate.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Controls, Diagnostics and Instrumentation Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received February 27, 2015; final manuscript received February 27, 2015; published online March 31, 2015. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 137(10), 101601 (Oct 01, 2015) (6 pages) Paper No: GTP-15-1056; doi: 10.1115/1.4029948 History: Received February 27, 2015; Revised February 27, 2015; Online March 31, 2015

Low-temperature combustion (LTC) engine concepts such as homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) offer the potential of improved efficiency and reduced emissions of nitrogen oxide (NOx) and particulates. However, engines can only successfully operate in HCCI mode for limited operating ranges that vary depending on the fuel composition. Unfortunately, traditional ratings such as octane number (ON) poorly predict the auto-ignition behavior of fuels in such engine modes, and metrics recently proposed for HCCI engines have areas of improvement when wide ranges of fuels are considered. In this study, a new index for ranking fuel suitability for LTC engines was defined, based on the fraction of potential fuel savings achieved in the federal test procedure (FTP-75) light-duty vehicle driving cycle. Driving cycle simulations were performed using a typical light-duty passenger vehicle, providing pairs of engine speed and load points. Separately, single-zone naturally aspirated HCCI engine simulations were performed for a variety of fuels in order to determine the operating envelopes for each. These results were combined to determine the varying improvement in fuel economy offered by fuels, forming the basis for a fuel performance index. Results showed that, in general, lower octane fuels performed better, resulting in higher LTC fuel index values; however, ON alone did not predict fuel performance.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

EPA FTP-75 driving cycle

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Fig. 2

Engine speed and torque operating points with fuel consumption rate overlaid for simulated driving cycle

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Fig. 3

Equivalence ratio operating ranges for various primary reference fuel mixtures at CR = 18 and naturally aspirated inlet conditions

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Fig. 4

Operating envelopes for various primary reference fuel mixtures at CR = 18 and naturally aspirated inlet conditions over FTP-75 driving cycle

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Fig. 5

Pressure profiles for the fuels at 1200 rpm and various equivalence ratios: (a) pressure profiles for PRF 0 (n-heptane) at equivalence ratios of 0.18–0.22, (b) pressure profiles for PRF 20 at equivalence ratios of 0.18–0.22, (c) pressure profiles for PRF 40 at equivalence ratios of 0.18–0.24, and (d) pressure profiles for PRF 70 at equivalence ratios of 0.265–0.295

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