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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Implementation Challenges and Solutions for Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Combustion in Diesel Engines

[+] Author and Article Information
Usman Asad

Department of Mechanical,
Automotive & Materials Engineering,
University of Windsor,
401 Sunset Avenue,
Windsor, ON N9B 3P4, Canada
e-mail: asadu2@asme.org

Ming Zheng

Department of Mechanical,
Automotive & Materials Engineering,
University of Windsor,
401 Sunset Avenue,
Windsor, ON N9B 3P4, Canada
e-mail: mzheng@uwindsor.ca

David S.-K. Ting

Department of Mechanical,
Automotive & Materials Engineering,
University of Windsor,
401 Sunset Avenue,
Windsor, ON N9B 3P4, Canada
e-mail: dting@uwindsor.ca

Jimi Tjong

Ford Motor Company,
1 Quality Way,
Windsor, ON N9A 6X3, Canada
e-mail: jtjong@ford.com

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received February 27, 2015; final manuscript received March 3, 2015; published online April 8, 2015. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 137(10), 101505 (Oct 01, 2015) (10 pages) Paper No: GTP-15-1053; doi: 10.1115/1.4030091 History: Received February 27, 2015; Revised March 03, 2015; Online April 08, 2015

Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion in diesel engines can provide cleaner operation with ultralow NOx and soot emissions. While HCCI combustion has generated significant attention in the last decade, however, till date, it has seen very limited application in production diesel engines. HCCI combustion is typically characterized by earlier than top-dead-center (pre-TDC) phasing, very high-pressure rise rates, short combustion durations, and minimal control over the timing of the combustion event. To offset the high reactivity of the diesel fuel, large amounts of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) (30–60%) are usually applied to postpone the initiation of combustion, shift the combustion toward TDC, and alleviate to some extent, the high-pressure rise rates and the reduced energy efficiency. In this work, a detailed analysis of HCCI combustion has been carried out on a high-compression ratio (CR), single-cylinder diesel engine. The effects of intake boost, EGR quantity/temperature, engine speed, injection scheduling, and injection pressure on the operability limits have been empirically determined and correlated with the combustion stability, emissions, and performance metrics. The empirical investigation is extended to assess the suitability of common alternate fuels (n-butanol, gasoline, and ethanol) for HCCI combustion. On the basis of the analysis, the significant challenges affecting the real-world application of HCCI are identified, their effects on the engine performance quantified, and possible solutions to overcome these challenges explored through both theoretical and empirical investigations. This paper intends to provide a comprehensive summary of the implementation issues affecting HCCI combustion in diesel engines.

Copyright © 2015 by ASME
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References

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Asad, U., Kumar, R., Zheng, M., and Tjong, J., 2015, “Ethanol-Fuelled Low Temperature Combustion: A Pathway to Clean and Efficient Diesel Engine Cycles,” Appl. Energy (in press). [CrossRef]

Figures

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Fig. 1

Common LTC strategies for diesel engines

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Fig. 2

LTC fueling configurations

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Fig. 3

Experimental setup

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Fig. 4

Simulating the liquid spray penetration length

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Fig. 5

Effect of EGR on HCCI combustion and emissions

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Fig. 6

Effect of intake temperature

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Fig. 7

Effect of engine speed on HCCI combustion

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Fig. 8

Effect of engine speed on HCCI emissions

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Fig. 9

Effect of injection pressure on HCCI emissions

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Fig. 10

Injection pressure for minimum CO and THC penalty

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Fig. 11

HCCI load limit (CR 18.2:1)

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Fig. 12

HCCI combustion-7.5 bar IMEP (CR 15:1)

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Fig. 13

HCCI combustion-10.1 bar IMEP (CR 15:1)

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Fig. 14

Gasoline HCCI-10.4 bar IMEP (CR 15:1)

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Fig. 15

Gasoline HCCI load limit (CR 15:1)

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Fig. 16

n-Butanol HCCI without EGR (CR 18.2:1)

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Fig. 17

n-Butanol HCCI with EGR (CR 18.2)

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Fig. 18

Thermal efficiency variations with combustion phasing

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Fig. 19

Thermal efficiency variations with CR

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