Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Effect of Particle Size Distribution on the Deep-Bed Capture Efficiency of an Exhaust Particulate Filter

[+] Author and Article Information
Sandeep Viswanathan

University of Wisconsin–Madison,
1500 Engineering Drive,
Madison, WI 53706
e-mail: sviswanatha2@wisc.edu

David Rothamer

University of Wisconsin–Madison,
1500 Engineering Drive,
Madison, WI 53706
e-mail: rothamer@wisc.edu

Stephen Sakai

University of Wisconsin–Madison,
1500 Engineering Drive,
Madison, WI 53706
e-mail: ssakai@wisc.edu

Mitchell Hageman

University of Wisconsin–Madison,
1500 Engineering Drive,
Madison, WI 53706
e-mail: hageman@wisc.edu

David Foster

University of Wisconsin–Madison,
1500 Engineering Drive,
Madison, WI 53706
e-mail: foster@engr.wisc.edu

Todd Fansler

University of Wisconsin–Madison,
1500 Engineering Drive,
Madison, WI 53706
e-mail: tfansler@engr.wisc.edu

Michael Andrie

University of Wisconsin–Madison,
1500 Engineering Drive,
Madison, WI 53706
e-mail: mandrie@wisc.edu

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received March 3, 2015; final manuscript received March 12, 2015; published online March 31, 2015. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 137(10), 101504 (Oct 01, 2015) (11 pages) Paper No: GTP-15-1078; doi: 10.1115/1.4030098 History: Received March 03, 2015; Revised March 12, 2015; Online March 31, 2015

The exhaust filtration analysis system (EFA) developed at the University of Wisconsin–Madison was used to perform microscale filtration experiments on cordierite filter samples using particulate matter (PM) generated by a spark ignition direct injection (SIDI) engine fueled with gasoline. A scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) was used to characterize running conditions with four distinct particle size distributions (PSDs). The distributions selected differed in the relative number of accumulation versus nucleation mode particles. The SMPS and an engine exhaust particle sizer (EEPS) were used to simultaneously measure the PSD downstream of the EFA and the real-time particulate emissions from the SIDI engine to determine the evolution of filtration efficiency (FE) during filter loading. Cordierite filter samples with properties representative of diesel particulate filters (DPFs) were loaded with PM from the different engine operating conditions. The results were compared to understand the impact of PSD on filtration performance as well as the role of accumulation mode particles on the diffusion capture of PM. The most penetrating particle size (MPPS) was observed to decrease as a result of particle deposition within the filter substrate. In the absence of a soot cake, the penetration of particles smaller than 70 nm was seen to gradually increase with time, potentially due to increased velocities in the filter as flow area reduces during filter loading, or due to decreasing wall area for capture of particles by diffusion. Particle re-entrainment was not observed for any of the operating conditions.

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Fig. 1

Evolution of particle penetration during different stages of deep bed filtration. Adapted from Ref. [21].

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Fig. 2

Schematic of experimental layout used in this study. Red lines are used to indicate heated sections in the setup.

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Fig. 3

Washcoated and catalyzed washcoated wafers used in the EFA system

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Fig. 4

Schematic of the EFA

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Fig. 5

Different layout used during preliminary studies

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Fig. 6

SMPS ratio as a function of mobility diameter for different engine operating conditions

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Fig. 7

PSD from different SIDI operating conditions measured using an SMPS

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Fig. 8

Comparison of filter permeability, total concentration and GMD at filter inlet between different operating conditions

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Fig. 9

Change in penetration for 30 to 90 nm particles (top), 120 to 200 nm particles (center), and normalized penetration (bottom) with time (averaged over 100 s) for different particle sizes during filtration of exhaust from the EOI 220 condition

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Fig. 10

Change in NPD (top), filtration velocity (center), and particle number based FE (bottom), averaged over 100 s, during filtration of exhaust from the EOI 220 condition

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Fig. 11

Size resolved FE (averaged over 100 s) at different times during the filtration of exhaust from the EOI 220 condition. The arrow and dotted lines indicate the decrease in the MPPS over the duration of the experiment.

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Fig. 12

Estimated change in interstitial velocity (assuming constant grain diameter) and grain diameter (assuming constant mean pore velocity) during filtration of exhaust from the baseline EOI 220 condition. The dotted arrow at the bottom indicates direction in which filtration proceeds.

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Fig. 13

Comparison of change in penetration of 50, 90, and 150 nm particles during filter loading under different operating conditions

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Fig. 14

Change in MPPS during filter loading under different operating conditions

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Fig. 15

Change in FE based on total particle number for different engine operating conditions

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Fig. 16

Change in NPD across the filter during filtration experiments under different operating conditions




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