Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Filtration Characteristics of Fuel Neutral Particulates Using a Heterogeneous Multiscale Filtration Model

[+] Author and Article Information
Jian Gong

Cummins Inc.,
1900 McKinley Avenue,
MC 50183,
Columbus, IN 47201
e-mail: jian.gong@cummins.com

Christopher J. Rutland

Engine Research Center,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Wisconsin-Madison,
1500 Engineering Drive,
Madison, WI 53706
e-mail: rutland@engr.wisc.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received March 1, 2015; final manuscript received March 14, 2015; published online May 12, 2015. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 137(11), 111507 (Nov 01, 2015) (8 pages) Paper No: GTP-15-1070; doi: 10.1115/1.4030282 History: Received March 01, 2015; Revised March 14, 2015; Online May 12, 2015

Filtration characteristics of fuel neutral soot particulate were studied using a recently developed heterogeneous multiscale filtration (HMF) model. In the HMF model, a probability density function (PDF) based pore size distribution and a porosity distribution across the filter wall are introduced to represent the heterogeneous multiscale porous structure. The HMF model was validated by an exhaust filtration analysis (EFA) system, which was designed for fundamental experimental filtration studies. Various sources of particulates from combustion engines were used in the filtration studies. Some particulates were sampled from a spark ignited direct injection (SIDI) engine fueled with gasoline and ethanol blends. Particulates from a compression ignition engine fueled with diesel for conventional and advanced combustion regimes were investigated as well. The microstructure of the porous wall was found to be more critical and necessary to simulate filtration of particulates from gasoline and advanced diesel combustion engines than those from conventional diesel combustion (CDC) engines. The interactions between the porous wall and trapped particulates were investigated. The dynamic filtration characteristics, including filtration efficiency, pressure drop and particulate distribution inside the wall are strongly dependent on total particulate volume rather than total particulate number concentration. The change of the filter structure as well as the shape of the particulate size distribution play important roles on particulate penetration.

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Fig. 1

Porosity distribution across the wall: (a) homogeneous porosity distribution (b) heterogeneous porosity distribution

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Fig. 2

Normalized particulate mass inside a filter after a 1200 s filtration simulation by using (a) a homogeneous porosity distribution and (b) a heterogeneous porosity distribution

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Fig. 3

Selected PSDs for filtration studies

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Fig. 4

Particle size distributions downstream of the filter at different time for EEE-rich particulate filtration test (dashed line: experimental data; solid line: model)

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Fig. 5

Size resolved particulate number concentration evolution for particulates from SIDI engine fueled with gasoline at rich condition

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Fig. 6

Normalized pressure drop across the filter wall

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Fig. 7

Normalized particulate mass across the filter wall at t = 60 s, 600 s, and 1200 s

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Fig. 8

Total particulate number concentrations for selected PSDs

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Fig. 9

Size dependent filtration efficiencies of different PSDs at 1200 s

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Fig. 10

Total particulate volumes for selected PSDs

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Fig. 11

Normalized pressure drops across the filter wall of different PSDs

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Fig. 12

Normalized particulate mass distribution across the filter wall at t = 1200 s (dashed line represents the penetration depth)

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Fig. 13

Normalized particulate mass at 1200 s for HCCI particulate filtration and at 120 s for RCCI particulate filtration (dashed line represents the penetration depth)




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