Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Piston Ring and Groove Side Wear Analysis for Diesel Engines

[+] Author and Article Information
Mulyanto Poort

944 Market Street, Suite 300,
San Francisco, CA 94102
e-mail: mulyanto@rescale.com

Chao Cheng

Energy & Automotive Research Lab,
Michigan State University,
East Lansing, MI 48824
e-mail: chengc22@msu.edu

Dan Richardson

Cummins Inc.,
MC 19606,
Columbus, IN 47201
e-mail: dan.e.richardson@cummins.com

Harold Schock

Energy & Automotive Research Lab,
Michigan State University,
East Lansing, MI 48824
e-mail: schock@egr.msu.edu

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received February 27, 2015; final manuscript received March 19, 2015; published online May 12, 2015. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 137(11), 111503 (Nov 01, 2015) (9 pages) Paper No: GTP-15-1060; doi: 10.1115/1.4030290 History: Received February 27, 2015; Revised March 19, 2015; Online May 12, 2015

Piston ring wear is a major factor determining a diesel engine's life. A ring is subjected to wear between its front face and the cylinder wall as well as at the interfaces between the ring and groove top and bottom flanks. In many modern engines, ring and groove wear are becoming more of a limiting factor for ring durability than face wear. The focus of this paper is on ring to groove side wear only. In this paper, two fundamental mechanisms for ring/groove side wear are identified: (1) wear due to piston secondary motion and (2) wear due to ring twist. The time in the cycle where each of these mechanisms results in maximum wear is shown. Then, the effect of ring static twist and the resulting effect on the pressure distribution around the ring are studied. The pressure distribution affects the force acting on the ring that causes the ring/groove side wear. It is also shown that the pressure distribution and the resultant wear can be influenced by the land diameter below the piston ring. Progressive wear is also studied, showing a good correlation between predicted wear and measured wear on both ring sides and groove sides. It is noted that as the corner of the ring/groove wears, the ultimate wear of the ring side can accelerate by a phenomenon named pressure infiltration. Pressure infiltration occurs because the bottom side of the ring groove wears exposing more of bottom side of the ring to lower pressure force. This ultimately causes a higher difference between the high pressure above the ring and the low pressure below the ring. As a result, the net force acting on the ring increases and wear increases. In addition to the study of the first ring, the second ring wear was studied. A comparison was made between the top ring and second ring groove side wear (RGSW) predictions. Also, the effect of the second ring static twist on both top and second ring/groove side wear is described in detail.

Copyright © 2015 by ASME
Topics: Pressure , Wear
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Fig. 6

Pressure distribution for different ring twist cases: (a) high negative twist case, (b) low negative twist case, and (c) positive twist case

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Fig. 5

Wear potential from ring twist

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Fig. 4

Wear potential from piston secondary motion

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Fig. 3

Wear locations and final wear distribution over a cycle. (a) Wear locations and cumulative wear over one cycle and (b) wear calculation at various instances of time and the final distribution over a cycle.

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Fig. 2

Relative ring–groove motions (a) and ring–groove asperity locations (b)

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Fig. 1

Ring and groove configuration

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Fig. 7

Effect of land clearance on ring twisting direction: (a) small land clearance initial, (b) small land clearance final, (c) large land clearance initial, and (d) large land clearance final

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Fig. 8

Low pressure gas infiltration

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Fig. 10

Ring groove side progressive wears at top of groove (top) and bottom of groove (bottom) for engine 1

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Fig. 11

Schematic diagram of wear measurement: (a) ring wear measurement and (b) groove wear measurement

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Fig. 14

Comparison between top and second RGSW after 1000 hr

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Fig. 15

Groove wear for different second ring static twists

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Fig. 16

Low-pressure infiltration for −0.715 deg, −0.50 deg, and 0.715 deg static twist by tracking pressure force on the second ring

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Fig. 12

Experimental and simulated ring–groove side wear comparison for engine 2

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Fig. 17

Normalized groove wear for different top rings blowby



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