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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Three-Dimensional Piston Ring–Cylinder Bore Contact Modeling

[+] Author and Article Information
Chao Cheng

Energy and Automotive Research Lab,
Michigan State University,
East Lansing, MI 48823
e-mail: chengc22@msu.edu

Ali Kharazmi

Energy and Automotive Research Lab,
Michigan State University,
East Lansing, MI 48823
e-mail: kharazm1@msu.edu

Harold Schock

Energy and Automotive Research Lab,
Michigan State University,
East Lansing, MI 48823
e-mail: schock@egr.msu.edu

Richard Wineland

EcoMotors International,
Allen Park, MI 48101
e-mail: rwineland1@aol.com

Larry Brombolich

Compu-Tec Engineering,
Tucson, AZ 85706
e-mail: ljbrom3@msn.com

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received February 27, 2015; final manuscript received March 20, 2015; published online May 12, 2015. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 137(11), 111505 (Nov 01, 2015) (10 pages) Paper No: GTP-15-1063; doi: 10.1115/1.4030349 History: Received February 27, 2015; Revised March 20, 2015; Online May 12, 2015

Increasing durability, preventing knocking combustion, improving fuel efficiency, and reducing pollutant emission characterize the needs for modern internal combustion engine design. These factors are highly influenced by the power cylinder system design. In particular, the piston ring to cylinder bore contact force distribution around the circumference of the piston rings must be optimized under all running conditions. To accomplish this, the ring manufacturers make the ring curvature nonconstant along the circumference. Most existing analytical tools are not able to simulate the variation along the ring circumference. In order to improve the understanding of this contact distribution and provide a high-fidelity ring design tool, a three-dimensional finite element piston ring model was developed to accomplish this variation. The modeling procedure and results are presented in this work. Experiments using a commercially available ring with negative ovality were conducted to validate the model. The ring free-shape profile and the ring cross section geometries were used as inputs to the model. Typical piston ring groove and cylinder wall temperatures were also model inputs to characterize thermal influences on the ring/bore interface forces. The ring/bore conformability was analyzed as a function of the ring radial displacements, cylinder bore constraint forces and thermal load changes to the ring. The model output showed radially separation gaps between the ring front face and the bore. This analysis provides an insight to evaluate the piston ring design. Together with an optimizer, the model can be used as a ring design tool to predict the ring free shape with a specified constraint force distribution pattern. Examples are given to demonstrate the capabilities of this numerical analytical tool. In addition, the 3D ring model can be used to improve the accuracy of existing lubrication, friction, and wear analysis tools and therefore improve the entire internal combustion engine power cylinder system design.

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References

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Hexahedral element and its DOF

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Fig. 2

Mesh of the ring with hexahedral elements

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Fig. 3

Flowchart of solving ring–bore contact

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Fig. 4

Nodes for constraint violation check

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Fig. 5

Schematic diagram of force release approach

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Fig. 6

Flowchart of the force release method

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Fig. 7

Ring convective boundary condition

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Fig. 9

Ring contact force measurement

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Fig. 10

Details of the ring cross section

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Fig. 11

Normalized ring radius at its free shape (half-ring)

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Fig. 12

Normalized calculated and measured contact forces

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Fig. 13

Free and deformed shapes

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Fig. 14

Ring–cylinder wall contact forces and separation gaps

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Fig. 15

Light-tight measuring of ring–bore separation

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Fig. 16

Separation gaps near ring tips

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Fig. 17

Ring temperature distribution

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Fig. 18

Ring cross section temperature distribution

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Fig. 19

Ring thermal expansion

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Fig. 20

Comparison of ring free-shape normalized radius at cold and hot conditions

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Fig. 21

Constraint forces and the separation gap size along ring circumference with temperature influence

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Fig. 22

Constraint force comparison between the free-shape ring without and with temperature compensation

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