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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

A Computational Study of the Mixture Preparation in a Direct–Injection Hydrogen Engine

[+] Author and Article Information
Jerome Le Moine, P. K. Senecal

Convergent Science Inc.,
Middleton, WI 53711

Sebastian A. Kaiser

University of Duisburg-Essen,
Duisburg 45141, Germany

Victor M. Salazar

General Electric Global Research,
Schenectady, NY 12309

Jon W. Anders, K. I. Svensson, C. R. Gehrke

Caterpillar Inc.,
Peoria, IL 61614

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received March 2, 2015; final manuscript received April 10, 2015; published online May 12, 2015. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 137(11), 111508 (Nov 01, 2015) (5 pages) Paper No: GTP-15-1074; doi: 10.1115/1.4030397 History: Received March 02, 2015; Revised April 10, 2015; Online May 12, 2015

This paper reports the validation of a three-dimensional numerical simulation of the mixture preparation in a direct-injection (DI) hydrogen-fueled engine. Computational results from the commercial code CONVERGE are compared to the experimental data obtained from an optically accessible engine. The geometry used in the simulation is a passenger-car sized, four-stroke, and spark-ignited engine. The simulation includes the geometry of the combustion chamber as well as the intake and exhaust ports. The hydrogen is supplied at 100 bar from a centrally located injector with a single-hole nozzle. The comparison between the simulation and experimental data is made on the central vertical plane. The fuel mole concentration and flow field are compared during the compression stroke at different crank angles (CA). The comparison shows good agreement between the numerical and experimental results during the early stage of the compression stroke. The penetration of the jet and the interaction with the cylinder walls are correctly predicted. The fuel spreading is under predicted which results in differences in flow field and fuel mixture during the injection between experimental and numerical results. At the end of the injection, the fuel distribution shows some disagreement which gradually increases during the rest of the simulation.

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References

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Scarcelli, R., Wallner, T., Matthias, N., Salazar, V., and Kaiser, S., 2011, “Mixture Formation in a Direct Injection Hydrogen Engines: CFD and Optical Analysis of Single- and Multi-Hole Nozzles,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2011-24-0096. [CrossRef]
Scarcelli, R., Wallner, T., Matthias, N., Salazar, V., and Kaiser, S., 2009, “Modeling and Experiments on Mixture Formation in a Hydrogen Research Engine,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2009-24-0083. [CrossRef]
Lucchini, T., D'Errico, G., and Fiocco, M., 2011, “Multi-Dimensional Modeling of Gas Exchange and Fuel–Air Mixing Processes in a Direct-Injection, Gas Fueled Engine,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2011-24-0036. [CrossRef]
Hamzehloo, A., and Aleiferis, P., 2013, “Computational Study of Hydrogen Direct Injection for Internal Combustion Engines,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2013-01-2524. [CrossRef]
Salazar, V. M., and Kaiser, S. A., 2010, “Characterization of Mixture Preparation in a Direct-Injection Internal Combustion Engine Fueled With Hydrogen Using PIV and PLIF,” 15th International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, July 5–8.
Scarcelli, R., Wallner, T., and Matthias, N., 2011, “Numerical and Optical Evolution of Gaseous Jets in Direct Injection Hydrogen Engines,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2011-01-0675. [CrossRef]
Scarcelli, R., Wallner, T., Obermair, H., Salazar, V. M., and Kaiser, S. A., 2010, “CFD and Optical Investigations of Fluid Dynamics and Mixture Formation in a DI-H2ICE,” ASME Paper No. ICEF2010-35084. [CrossRef]
Salazar, V. M., Kaiser, S. A., and Halter, F., 2009, “Optimizing Precision and Accuracy of Quantitative PLIF of Acetone as a Tracer for Hydrogen Fuel,” 15th International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, SAE Technical Paper No. 2009-01-1534. [CrossRef]
Senecal, P. K., Richards, K. J., Pomraning, E., Yang, T., Dai, M. Z., McDavid, R. M., Patterson, M. A., Hou, S., and Sethaji, T., 2007, “A New Parallel Cut-Cell Cartesian CFD Code for Rapid Grid Generation Applied to In-Cylinder Diesel Engine Simulations,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2007-01-0159. [CrossRef]
Senecal, P. K., Richards, K. J., and Pomraning, E., 2008, CONVERGE (Version 1.2) Manual, Convergent Science Inc., Middleton, WI.
Issa, R. I., 1985, “Solution of the Implicitly Discretized Fluid Flow Equations by Operator-Splitting,” J. Comput. Phys., 62(1), pp. 40–65. [CrossRef]
Pope, S. B., 2000, Turbulent Flows, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

In-cylinder and injector mesh resolution at −130 deg ATDC

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Hydrogen mole fraction—comparison between experiment and simulation

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Velocity field—comparison between experiment and simulation

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Representation of the engine with exhaust ports and intake ports with tumble plates

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