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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Cycle Innovations

Waste Heat Recovery in a Cruise Vessel in the Baltic Sea by Using an Organic Rankine Cycle: A Case Study

[+] Author and Article Information
Fredrik Ahlgren

Kalmar Maritime Academy,
Linnaeus University,
Kalmar SE-39182, Sweden
e-mail: fredrik.ahlgren@lnu.se

Maria E. Mondejar

Energy Sciences,
Lund University,
Lund SE-22100, Sweden
e-mail: maria.mondejar@energy.lth.se

Magnus Genrup

Energy Sciences,
Lund University,
Lund SE-22100, Sweden
e-mail: magnus.genrup@energy.lth.se

Marcus Thern

Energy Sciences,
Lund University,
Lund SE-22100, Sweden
e-mail: marcus.thern@energy.lth.se

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Cycle Innovations Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received July 20, 2015; final manuscript received July 21, 2015; published online August 12, 2015. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 138(1), 011702 (Aug 12, 2015) (10 pages) Paper No: GTP-15-1349; doi: 10.1115/1.4031145 History: Received July 20, 2015

Maritime transportation is a significant contributor to SOx, NOx, and particle matter (PM) emissions, and to a lesser extent, of CO2. Recently, new regulations are being enforced in special geographical areas to limit the amount of emissions from the ships. This fact, together with the high fuel prices, is driving the marine industry toward the improvement of the energy efficiency of ships. Although more sophisticated and complex engine designs can improve significantly of the energy systems on ships, waste heat recovery arises as the most effective technique for the reduction of the energy consumption. In this sense, it is estimated that around 50% of the total energy from the fuel consumed in a ship is wasted and rejected through liquid and gas streams. The primary heat sources for waste heat recovery are the engine exhaust and coolant. In this work, we present a study on the integration of an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) in an existing ship, for the recovery of the main and auxiliary engines (AE) exhaust heat. Experimental data from the engines on the cruise ship M/S Birka Stockholm were logged during a port-to-port cruise from Stockholm to Mariehamn, over a period of 4 weeks. The ship has four main engines (ME) Wärtsilä 5850 kW for propulsion, and four AE 2760 kW which are used for electrical generation. Six engine load conditions were identified depending on the ship's speed. The speed range from 12 to 14 kn was considered as the design condition for the ORC, as it was present during more than 34% of the time. In this study, the average values of the engines exhaust temperatures and mass flow rates, for each load case, were used as inputs for a model of an ORC. The main parameters of the ORC, including working fluid and turbine configuration, were optimized based on the criteria of maximum net power output and compactness of the installation components. Results from the study showed that an ORC with internal regeneration using benzene as working fluid would yield the greatest average net power output over the operating time. For this situation, the power production of the ORC would represent about 22% of the total electricity consumption on board. These data confirmed the ORC as a feasible and promising technology for the reduction of fuel consumption and CO2 emissions of existing ships.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

M/S Birka Stockholm

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Fig. 2

Diagram of the waste heat sources and heat recovery network (EGBO)

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Fig. 3

Percentage of operating time for the speed intervals associated with each load condition

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Fig. 4

Mass flow rates of the exhaust gases of both the ME and AE, from the project manual data, as a function of the engine load (continuous lines), and model used in this work to estimate the mass flow rates at other loads (dashed lines). Continuous line with open circles: logged vessel speed versus the averaged engine load.

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Fig. 5

T–s diagrams of the two ORC configurations studied in this work: (a) toluene simple ORC with intermediate condenser loop and (b) benzene regenerated ORC with intermediate condenser loop

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Fig. 6

Diagrams of the two ORC configurations studied in this work: (a) simple ORC with intermediate condenser loop and (b) regenerated ORC with intermediate condenser loop

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Fig. 7

Net power output of the ORC with simple configuration (without regeneration) for different working fluids, together with the turbine size parameter (open circle) and overall cycle efficiency (open square). c1cc6, methyl cyclohexane.

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Fig. 8

Net power output of the ORC with regeneration for different working fluids, together with the turbine size parameter (open circle) and overall cycle efficiency (open square). c1cc6, methylcyclohexane; and dmc, dimethyl carbonate.

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Fig. 9

Evaporator pressure and refrigerant mass flow rate versus net power production, at the off-design conditions of the fluids in Tables 7 and 8: (a) o, toluene; •, methyl cyclohexane; and ⋄, ethyl benzene; and (b) o, benzene; •, dimethylcarbonate; and ⋄ cyclohexane

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Fig. 10

Net power output versus vessel speed for the three most optimal fluids for each ORC configuration. S, simple ORC; R, regenerated ORC; and av, weighted value over the operating time.

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