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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

A Simplified Model for Deposition and Removal of Soot Particles in an Exhaust Gas Recirculation Cooler

[+] Author and Article Information
A. Reza Razmavar

School of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering,
Shiraz University,
Shiraz 50278, Iran

M. Reza Malayeri

School of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering,
Shiraz University,
Shiraz 50278, Iran;
Institute for Thermodynamics and
Thermal Engineering,
University of Stuttgart,
Pfaffenwaldring 6,
Stuttgart 70550, Germany
e-mails: malayeri@shirazu.ac.ir;
m.malayeri@itw.uni-stuttgart.de

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received July 10, 2015; final manuscript received July 26, 2015; published online August 25, 2015. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 138(1), 011505 (Aug 25, 2015) (10 pages) Paper No: GTP-15-1245; doi: 10.1115/1.4031180 History: Received July 10, 2015; Revised July 26, 2015

Nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions from diesel engines can profoundly be suppressed if a portion of exhaust gases is cooled through a heat exchanger known as exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) cooler and returned to the intake of the combustion chamber. One major hurdle though for the efficient performance of EGR coolers is the deposition of various species, i.e., particulate matter (PM) on the surface of EGR coolers. In this study, a model is proposed for the deposition and removal of soot particles carried by the exhaust gases in a tubular cooler. The model takes thermophoresis into account as the primary deposition mechanism. Several removal mechanisms of incident particle impact, shear force, and rolling moment (RM) have rigorously been examined to obtain the critical velocity that is the maximum velocity at which the particulate fouling can profoundly be suppressed. The results show that the dominant removal mechanism changes from one to another based particle size and gas velocity. Based on particle mass and energy conservation equations, a model for the fouling resistance has also been developed which shows satisfactory agreement when compared with the fouling experimental results.

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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the EGR tube cross section and the deposit layer across the cooler and (b) the shell and tube type EGR cooler used in the experiments

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Sketch representing impact and rebound of a soot particle

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Fig. 3

Sticking probability of soot particles with different diameters colliding with a clean surface

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Fig. 4

Removal of particles from the deposit layer due to (a) shear force and (b) incident particle impact

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Fig. 5

Schematic of a particle in contact with flat surface and different forces acting on it in a fluid flow. F V the van der Waals adhesion force, F W the weight force, F D the drag force, and F L the lift force (adapted from Ref. [10]).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Critical velocity versus particle diameter for a tubular EGR cooler with an inner diameter of 10 mm

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Fig. 7

Comparison of experimental and theoretical fouling resistances for inlet gas velocities of (a) 30 m/s, (b) 40 m/s, (c) 70 m/s, and (d) 130 m/s

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Fig. 8

Variation of deposition and removal fluxes as a function of time for inlet gas velocities of (a) 30 and 40 m/s and (b) 70 and 130 m/s

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Fig. 9

Variation of total deposited mass as a function of time for four different gas velocities

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Fig. 10

Critical velocity versus tube diameter for two different particle sizes

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Fig. 11

Comparison of total deposited mass in three differently sized EGR coolers for an inlet gas velocity of 30 m/s

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