Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

A Simplified Model for Deposition and Removal of Soot Particles in an Exhaust Gas Recirculation Cooler

[+] Author and Article Information
A. Reza Razmavar

School of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering,
Shiraz University,
Shiraz 50278, Iran

M. Reza Malayeri

School of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering,
Shiraz University,
Shiraz 50278, Iran;
Institute for Thermodynamics and
Thermal Engineering,
University of Stuttgart,
Pfaffenwaldring 6,
Stuttgart 70550, Germany
e-mails: malayeri@shirazu.ac.ir;

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received July 10, 2015; final manuscript received July 26, 2015; published online August 25, 2015. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 138(1), 011505 (Aug 25, 2015) (10 pages) Paper No: GTP-15-1245; doi: 10.1115/1.4031180 History: Received July 10, 2015; Revised July 26, 2015

Nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions from diesel engines can profoundly be suppressed if a portion of exhaust gases is cooled through a heat exchanger known as exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) cooler and returned to the intake of the combustion chamber. One major hurdle though for the efficient performance of EGR coolers is the deposition of various species, i.e., particulate matter (PM) on the surface of EGR coolers. In this study, a model is proposed for the deposition and removal of soot particles carried by the exhaust gases in a tubular cooler. The model takes thermophoresis into account as the primary deposition mechanism. Several removal mechanisms of incident particle impact, shear force, and rolling moment (RM) have rigorously been examined to obtain the critical velocity that is the maximum velocity at which the particulate fouling can profoundly be suppressed. The results show that the dominant removal mechanism changes from one to another based particle size and gas velocity. Based on particle mass and energy conservation equations, a model for the fouling resistance has also been developed which shows satisfactory agreement when compared with the fouling experimental results.

Copyright © 2016 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Walsh, M. P. , 1997, “Global Trends in Diesel Emissions Control,” SAE Technical Paper No. 970179.
Hountalas, D. T. , Mavropoulos, G. C. , and Binder, K. B. , 2008, “Effect of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) Rates on Heavy Duty DI Diesel Engine Performance and Emissions,” Energy, 33(2), pp. 272–283. [CrossRef]
Zheng, M. , Reader, G. T. , and Hawley, J. G. , 2004, “Diesel Engine Exhaust Gas Recirculation—A Review on Advanced and Novel Concepts,” Energy Convers. Manage., 45(6), pp. 883–900. [CrossRef]
Hoard, J. , Abarham, M. , Styles, D. , Giuliano, J. M. , Sluder, C. S. , and Storey, J. M. E. , 2008, “Diesel EGR Cooler Fouling,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2008-01-2475.
Sluder, C. S. , Storey, J. M. , Lewis, S. A. , Styles, D. , Giuliano, J. , and Hoard, J. W. , 2008, “Hydrocarbons and Particulate Matter in EGR Cooler Deposits: Effects of Gas Flow Rate, Coolant Temperature, and Oxidation Catalyst,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2008-01-2467.
Lance, M. J. , Sluder, C. S. , Wang, H. , and Storey, J. M. , 2009, “Direct Measurement of EGR Cooler Deposit Thermal Properties for Improved Understanding of Cooler Fouling,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2009-01-1461.
Kern, D. Q. , and Seaton, R. E. , 1959, “A Theoretical Analysis of Thermal Surface Fouling,” Br. Chem. Eng., 4(5), pp. 258–262.
Grillot, J. M. , and Icart, G. , 1997, “Fouling of a Cylindrical Probe and a Finned Tube in a Diesel Exhaust Environment,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci., 14(4), pp. 442–454. [CrossRef]
Thonon, B. , Grandgeorge, S. , and Jallut, C. , 1999, “Effect of Geometry and Flow Conditions on Particulate Fouling in Plate Heat Exchangers,” Heat Transfer Eng., 20(3), pp. 12–24. [CrossRef]
Abd-Elhady, M. S. , Zornek, T. , Malayeri, M. R. , Balestrino, S. , Szymkowicz, P. G. , and Müller-Steinhagen, H. , 2011, “Influence of Gas Velocity on Particulate Fouling of Exhaust Gas Recirculation Coolers,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 54(4), pp. 838–846. [CrossRef]
Abd-Elhady, M. S. , and Malayeri, M. R. , 2013, “Asymptotic Characteristics of Particulate Deposit Formation in Exhaust Gas Recirculation Coolers,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 60(1–2), pp. 96–104. [CrossRef]
Abarham, M. , Hoard, J. , Assanis, D. , Styles, D. , Curtis, E. W. , Sluder, C. S. , and Storey, J. M. E. , 2010b, “An Analytical Study of Thermophoretic Particulate Deposition in Turbulent Pipe Flows,” Aerosol Sci. Technol., 44(9), pp. 785–795. [CrossRef]
Warey, A. , Balestrino, S. , Szymkowicz, P. , and Malayeri, M. R. , 2012, “A One-Dimensional Model for Particulate Fouling and Hydrocarbon Condensation in Exhaust Gas Recirculation Coolers,” Aerosol Sci. Technol., 46(2), pp. 198–213. [CrossRef]
Paz, C. , Suarez, E. , Eiris, A. , and Porteiro, J. , 2013, “Development of a Predictive CFD Fouling Model for Diesel Engine Exhaust Gas Systems,” Heat Transfer Eng., 34(8–9), pp. 674–682. [CrossRef]
Housiadas, C. , and Drossinos, Y. , 2005, “Thermophoretic Deposition in Tube Flow,” Aerosol Sci. Technol., 39(4), pp. 304–318. [CrossRef]
Incropera, F. P. , Dewitt, D. P. , Bergman, T. L. , and Lavine, A. S. , 2007, Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer, 6th ed., Wiley, New York.
Abarham, M. , Hoard, J. , Assanis, D. , Styles, D. , Curtis, E. W. , Ramesh, N. , Sluder, C. S. , and Storey, J. M. E. , 2009, “Numerical Modeling and Experimental Investigations of EGR Cooler Fouling in a Diesel Engine,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2009-01-1506.
Rogers, D. E. , and Reed, J. , 1984, “The Adhesion of Particles Undergoing an Elastic–Plastic Impact With a Surface,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., 17(4), pp. 677–689. [CrossRef]
van Beek, M. C. , Rindt, C. C. M. , Wijers, J. G. , and van Steenhoven, A. A. , 2006, “Rebound Characteristics for 50-μm Particles Impacting a Powdery Deposit,” Powder Technol., 165(2), pp. 53–64. [CrossRef]
Abd-Elhady, M. S. , Rindt, C. C. M. , Wijers, J. G. , van Steenhoven, A. A. , Bramer, E. A. , and van der Meer, T. H. , 2004, “Minimum Gas Speed in Heat Exchangers to Avoid Particulate Fouling,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 47(17–18), pp. 3943–3955. [CrossRef]
Han, H. , He, Y. L. , Tao, W. Q. , and Li, Y. S. , 2014, “A Parameter Study of Tube Bundle Heat Exchangers for Fouling Rate Reduction,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 72, pp. 210–221. [CrossRef]
Mehta, D. , Alger, T. , Hall, M. J. , Matthews, R. D. , and Ng, H. , 2001, “Particulate Characterization of a DISI Research Engine Using a Nephelometer and In-Cylinder Visualization,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2001-01-1976.
Lapureta, M. , Ballesteros, R. , and Martos, F. J. , 2006, “A Method to Determine the Fractal Dimension of Diesel Soot Agglomerates,” J. Colloid Interface Sci., 303(1), pp. 149–158. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
van Beek, M. C. , 2001, “ Gas-Side Fouling in Heat Recovery Boilers,” Ph.D. thesis, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands.
Johnson, K. L. , and Pollock, H. M. , 1994, “The Role of Adhesion in the Impact of Elastic Spheres,” J. Adhes. Sci. Technol., 8(11), pp. 1323–1332. [CrossRef]
Thornton, C. , and Ning, Z. , 1998, “A Theoretical Model for the Stick/Bounce Behaviour of Adhesive, Elastic–Plastic Spheres,” Powder Technol., 99(2), pp. 154–162. [CrossRef]
Lee, B. E. , Fletcher, C. A. , Shin, S. H. , and Kwon, S. B. , 2001, “Computational Study of Fouling Deposit Due to Surface-Coated Particles in Coal-Fired Power Utility Boilers,” Fuel, 81(15), pp. 2001–2008. [CrossRef]
Pan, Y. , Si, F. , Xu, Z. , and Romero, C. , 2011, “An Integrated Theoretical Fouling Model for Convective Heating Surfaces in Coal-Fired Boilers,” Powder Technol., 210(2), pp. 150–156. [CrossRef]
Johnson, K. L. , Kendall, K. , and Roberts, A. D. , 1971, “Surface Energy and the Contact of Elastic Solids,” Math. Phys. Sci., 324(1558), pp. 301–313. [CrossRef]
Reeks, M. W. , and Hall, D. , 2001, “Kinetic Models for Particle Resuspension in Turbulent Flows: Theory and Measurement,” J. Aerosol Sci., 32(1), pp. 1–31. [CrossRef]
Su, Y. T. , Hung, T. C. , and Ou, C. C. , 2006, “A Preliminary Analysis on Tool Wear Rate of Polishing Process: Adhesion Effects,” Wear, 260(1–2), pp. 50–61. [CrossRef]
Mehravaran, M. , and Brereton, G. , 2011, “Modeling of Thermophoretic Soot Deposition and Stabilization on Cooled Surfaces,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2011-01-2183.
Pradhan, S. K. , Nayak, B. B. , Sahay, S. S. , and Mishara, B. K. , 2009, “Mechanical Properties of Graphite Flakes and Spherulites Measured by Nanoindentation,” Carbon, 47(9), pp. 2290–2292. [CrossRef]
Baumli, P. , and Kaptay, G. , 2008, “Wettability of Carbon Surfaces by Pure Molten Alkali Chlorides and Their Penetration Into a Porous Graphite Substrate,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 495(1–2), pp. 192–196. [CrossRef]
Abarham, M. , Hoard, J. , Assanis, D. , Styles, D. , Curtis, E. W. , and Ramesh, N. , 2010a, “Review of Soot Deposition and Removal Mechanisms in EGR Coolers,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2010-01-1211.
Abarham, M. , Chafekar, T. , Hoard, J. W. , Salvi, A. , Styles, D. J. , Sluder, C. S. , and Assanis, D. , 2013, “ In-Situ Visualization of Exhaust Soot Particle Deposition and Removal in Channel Flows,” Chem. Eng. Sci., 87, pp. 359–370. [CrossRef]
Yung, B. P. , Merry, H. , and Bott, T. R. , 1989, “The Role of Turbulent Bursts in Particle Re-entrainment in Aqueous Systems,” Chem. Eng. Sci., 44(4), pp. 873–882. [CrossRef]
Tabor, D. , 1977, “Surface Forces and Surface Interactions,” J. Colloid Interface Sci., 58(1), pp. 2–13. [CrossRef]
Ahmadi, G. , Guo, S. , and Busnaina, A. , 2007, “Particle Adhesion and Detachment in Turbulent Flows Including Capillary Force,” Part. Sci. Technol., 25(1), pp. 59–76. [CrossRef]
Zhang, F. , Busnaina, A. , Fury, M. , and Wang, S. , 2000, “The Removal of Deformed Submicron Particles From Silicon Wafers by Spin Rinse and Megasonics,” J. Electron. Mater., 29(2), pp. 199–204. [CrossRef]
Malayeri, M. R. , Zornek, T. , Balestrino, A. , Warey, A. , and Szymkowicz, P. G. , 2013, “Deposition of Nano-Sized Soot Particles in Various EGR Coolers Under Thermophoretic and Isothermal Conditions,” ASME Heat Transfer Eng., 34(8–9), pp. 665–673. [CrossRef]
Messerer, A. , Niessner, R. , and Poschl, U. , 2003, “Thermophoretic Deposition of Soot Aerosol Particles Under Experimental Conditions Relevant for Modern Diesel Engines Exhaust Gas Systems,” J. Aerosol Sci., 34(8), pp. 1009–1021. [CrossRef]
He, C. , and Ahmadi, G. , 1998, “Particle Deposition With Thermophoresis in Laminar and Turbulent Duct Flows,” Aerosol Sci. Technol., 29(6), pp. 525–546. [CrossRef]
Romay, F. J. , Takagaki, S. S. , Liu, B. , and Liu, B. Y. , 1998, “Thermophoretic Deposition of Aerosol Particles in Turbulent Pipe Flow,” J. Aerosol Sci., 29(8), pp. 943–959. [CrossRef]
Bravo, Y. , Moreno, F. , and Longo, O. , 2007, “Improved Characterization of Fouling in Cooled EGR System,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2007-01-1257.
Mirsadraee, A. R. , and Malayeri, M. R. , 2015, “Estimation of Fouling Propensity of Soot Particles in an EGR Cooler Using Kalman Filters,” ASME J. Gas Turbines Power, 137(12), p. 121503. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the EGR tube cross section and the deposit layer across the cooler and (b) the shell and tube type EGR cooler used in the experiments

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Sketch representing impact and rebound of a soot particle

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Sticking probability of soot particles with different diameters colliding with a clean surface

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Removal of particles from the deposit layer due to (a) shear force and (b) incident particle impact

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Schematic of a particle in contact with flat surface and different forces acting on it in a fluid flow. F V the van der Waals adhesion force, F W the weight force, F D the drag force, and F L the lift force (adapted from Ref. [10]).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Critical velocity versus particle diameter for a tubular EGR cooler with an inner diameter of 10 mm

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Comparison of experimental and theoretical fouling resistances for inlet gas velocities of (a) 30 m/s, (b) 40 m/s, (c) 70 m/s, and (d) 130 m/s

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Variation of deposition and removal fluxes as a function of time for inlet gas velocities of (a) 30 and 40 m/s and (b) 70 and 130 m/s

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Variation of total deposited mass as a function of time for four different gas velocities

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Critical velocity versus tube diameter for two different particle sizes

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Comparison of total deposited mass in three differently sized EGR coolers for an inlet gas velocity of 30 m/s




Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In