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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Advanced Rayleigh Pressure Loss Model for High-Swirl Combustion in a Rotating Combustion Chamber

[+] Author and Article Information
Andreas Penkner

Institute of Jet Propulsion and Turbomachinery,
RWTH Aachen University,
Templergraben 55,
Aachen 52062, Germany
e-mail: penkner@ist.rwth-aachen.de

Peter Jeschke

Institute of Jet Propulsion and Turbomachinery,
RWTH Aachen University,
Templergraben 55,
Aachen 52062, Germany
e-mail: jeschke@ist.rwth-aachen.de

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received July 14, 2015; final manuscript received July 24, 2015; published online September 1, 2015. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 138(2), 021502 (Sep 01, 2015) (12 pages) Paper No: GTP-15-1299; doi: 10.1115/1.4031261 History: Received July 14, 2015

This paper considers the effect of excessive total pressure losses for heat transfer problems in fluid flows with a high circumferential swirl component. At RWTH Aachen University, a novel gas generator concept is under research. This design avoids some disadvantages of small gas turbines and uses a rotating combustion chamber. During the predesign of the rotating combustion chamber using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools, unexpected high total pressure losses were detected. To analyze this unknown phenomenon, a gas–dynamic model of the rotating combustion chamber has been developed to explain the unexpected high Rayleigh pressure losses. The derivation of the gas–dynamic model, the physical phenomenon related to the high total pressure losses in high-swirl combustion, the influencing factors, as well as thermodynamic interpretation of the Rayleigh pressure losses, are presented in this paper. In addition, the CFD results are validated by the gas–dynamic model derived. The results presented here are of possible interest for a wide range of applications, since these fundamental findings can be transferred to all heat transfer problems in fluid flows with a high circumferential swirl component.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Sectional view of the fully equipped prototype design in computer-aided design (CAD)

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Fig. 2

Schematic sketch of the gas generator concept

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Fig. 3

Meridional flow channel of the gas generator concept

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Fig. 4

Cross-sectional view of the rotating control volume

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Fig. 5

Velocity triangles of the control volume in meridional direction

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Fig. 6

Velocities over Tt4 (heat addition in the rotating system)

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Fig. 7

Mach numbers over Tt4 (heat addition in the rotating system)

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Fig. 8

Pressure ratios over Tt4 (heat addition in the rotating system)

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Fig. 9

Pressure over Tt4 (heat addition in the rotating system)

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Fig. 10

Design map for the standard Rayleigh case (heat addition in the stationary system)

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Fig. 11

Design map for the rotating case (heat addition in the rotating system)

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Fig. 12

Total pressure ratio (pt4/pt3)abs over Tt4 as a function of (cu/cax)3-ratio (heat addition in the rotating system)

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Fig. 13

Total pressure ratio (pt4/pt3)abs over (cu/cax)3-ratio as a function of Tt4 (heat addition in the rotating system)

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Fig. 14

Total pressure ratio (pt4/pt3)abs over Tt4 as a function of the combustion chamber inlet temperature Tt3 (heat addition in the rotating system)

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Fig. 15

Cross-sectional view of the rotating control volume of the general case with variable area and radius

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Fig. 16

Total pressure ratio (pt4/pt3)abs over rmn4/rmn3-ratio as a function of A4/A3-ratio (heat addition in the rotating system, general case)

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Fig. 17

CFD results of the rotating combustion chamber at DP (54,000 RPM), plots of total temperature in stationary frame

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Fig. 18

Comparison of the Rayleigh pressure loss from the CFD results with the gas–dynamic equations, total pressure ratio (pt4/pt3)abs over cu3

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Fig. 19

Comparison of rotating case I with stationary case II in a h–s chart

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