0
Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Turbomachinery

A Shape Memory Alloy-Based Morphing Axial Fan Blade—Part I: Blade Structure Design and Functional Characterization

[+] Author and Article Information
Annalisa Fortini, Mattia Merlin

Metallurgy Research Group,
Engineering Department in Ferrara (ENDIF),
Ferrara 44122, Italy

Alessio Suman, Nicola Aldi, Michele Pinelli

Fluid Machinery Research Group,
Engineering Department in Ferrara (ENDIF),
Ferrara 44122, Italy

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Turbomachinery Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received July 15, 2015; final manuscript received July 22, 2015; published online September 1, 2015. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 138(2), 022601 (Sep 01, 2015) (8 pages) Paper No: GTP-15-1316; doi: 10.1115/1.4031272 History: Received July 15, 2015

The possibility to realize adaptive structures is of great interest in turbomachinery design, owing to the benefits related to enhanced performance and efficiency. To accomplish this, a challenging approach is the employment of shape memory alloys (SMAs), which can recover seemingly permanent strains by solid phase transformations whereby the so-called shape memory effect (SME) takes place. This paper presents the development of a heavy-duty automotive cooling axial fan with morphing blades activated by SMA strips that works as actuator elements in the polymeric blade structure. Concerning the fan performance, this new concept differs from a conventional viscous fan clutch solution especially during the nonstationary operating conditions. The blade design was performed in order to achieve the thermal activation of the strips by means of air stream flow. Two polymeric matrices were chosen to be tested in conjunction with a commercially available NiTi binary alloy, whose phase transformation temperatures (TTRs) were experimentally evaluated by imposing the actual operating thermal gradient. The SMA strips were then thermomechanically treated to memorize a bent shape and embedded in the polymeric blade. In a specifically designed wind tunnel, the different polymeric matrices equipped with the SMA strips were tested to assess the fluid temperature and surface pattern behavior of the blade. Upon heating, they tend to recover the memorized shape and the blade is forced to bend, leading to a camber variation and a trailing edge displacement. The recovery behavior of each composite structure (polymeric matrix with the SMA strips) was evaluated through digital image analysis techniques. The differences between the blade shape at the initial condition and at the maximum bending deformation were considered. According to these results, the best coupling of SMA strips and polymeric structure is assessed and its timewise behavior is compared to the traditional timewise behavior of a viscous fan clutch.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2016 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Stoeckel, D. , 1990, “ Shape Memory Actuators for Automotive Applications,” Mater. Des., 11(6), pp. 302–307. [CrossRef]
Lin, W. , and Sunden, B. , 2010, “ Vehicle Cooling Systems for Reducing Fuel, Consumption and Carbon Dioxide: Literature Survey,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2010-01-1509.
Blair, E. C. , 1974, “ Comparison of Modulated (Viscous) Versus On-Off Fan Clutches,” SAE Technical Paper No. 740596.
Elmer, A. , Parry, S. , and Blandford, G. , 1994, “ Direct Sensing–Modulating Fan Clutch for Heavy Duty Commercial Vehicles,” SAE Technical Paper No. 942254.
Lee, K. , Lee, J. , and Koo, B. , 1998, “ Development of a Continuously Variable Speed Viscous Fan Clutch for Engine Cooling System,” SAE Technical Paper No. 980838.
Kim, K. B. , Choi, K. W. , Lee, K. H. , and Lee, K. S. , 2010, “ Active Coolant Control Strategies in Automotive Engines,” Int. J. Automot. Technol., 11(6), pp. 767–772. [CrossRef]
Sun, L. , Huang, W. M. , Ding, Z. , Zhao, Y. , Wang, C. C. , Purnawali, H. , and Tang, C. , 2012, “ Stimulus-Responsive Shape Memory Materials: A Review,” Mater. Des., 33(1), pp. 577–640. [CrossRef]
Hartl, D. J. , and Lagoudas, D. C. , 2007, “ Aerospace Applications of Shape Memory Alloys,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part G: J. Aerosp. Eng., pp. 535–552.
Jani, J. M. , Leary, M. , Subic, A. , and Gibson, M. A. , 2014, “ A Review of Shape Memory Alloy Research, Applications and Opportunities,” Mater. Des., 56(4), pp. 1078–1113. [CrossRef]
Epps, J. , and Chopra, I. , 2001, “ In-Flight Tracking of Helicopter Rotor Blades Using Shape Memory Alloy Actuators,” Smart Mater. Struct., 10(1), pp. 104–111. [CrossRef]
Song, G. , and Ma, N. , 2007, “ Robust Control of a Shape Memory Alloy Wire Actuated Flap,” Smart Mater. Struct., 16(6), pp. N51–N57. [CrossRef]
Jayasankar, S. , Senthilkumar, P. , Varughese, B. , Ramanaiah, B. , Viswanath, S. , Ramachandra, H. V. , and Dayananda, G. N. , 2011, “ Smart Aerodynamic Surface for a Typical Military Aircraft Using Shape Memory Elements,” J. Aircr., 48(5), pp. 1968–1977. [CrossRef]
Senthilkumar, P. , Jayasankar, S. , Satisha , Sateesh, V. L. , Kamaleshaiah, M. S. , and Dayananda, G. N. , 2013, “ Development and Wind Tunnel Evaluation of a Shape Memory Alloy Based Trim Tab Actuator for a Civil Aircraft,” Smart Mater. Struct., 22(9), p. 095025. [CrossRef]
Strelec, J. K. , Lagoudas, D. C. , Khan, M. A. , and Yen, J. , 2003, “ Design and Implementation of a Shape Memory Alloy Actuated Reconfigurable Airfoil,” J. Intell. Mater. Syst. Struct., 14(4–5), pp. 257–273. [CrossRef]
Barbarino, S. , Bilgen, O. , Ajaj, R. M. , Friswell, M. I. , and Inman, D. J. , 2011, “ A Review of Morphing Aircraft,” J. Intell. Mater. Syst. Struct., 22(9), pp. 823–877. [CrossRef]
Weisshaar, T. A. , 2013, “ Morphing Aircraft Systems: Historical Perspectives and Future Challenges,” J. Aircr., 50(2), pp. 337–353. [CrossRef]
Sofla, A. Y. N. , Meguid, S. A. , Tan, K. T. , and Yeo, W. K. , 2010, “ Shape Morphing of Aircraft Wing: Status and Challenges,” Mater. Des., 31(3), pp. 1284–1292. [CrossRef]
Oehler, S. D. , Hartl, D. J. , Lopez, R. , Malak, R. J. , and Lagoudas, D. C. , 2012, “ Design Optimization and Uncertainty Analysis of SMA Morphing Structures,” Smart Mater. Struct., 21(9), p. 094016. [CrossRef]
Kuder, I . K. , Arrieta, A. F. , Raither, W. E. , and Ermanni, P. , 2013, “ Variable Stiffness Material and Structural Concepts for Morphing Applications,” Prog. Aerosp. Sci., 63(11), pp. 33–55. [CrossRef]
Lachenal, X. , Daynes, S. , and Weaver, P. M. , 2013, “ Review of Morphing Concepts and Materials for Wind Turbine Blade Applications,” Wind Energy, 16(2), pp. 283–307. [CrossRef]
Ponta, F. L. , Otero, A. D. , Rajana, A. , and Lagoa, L. I. , 2014, “ The Adaptive-Blade Concept in Wind-Power Applications,” Energy Sustainable Dev., 22(10), pp. 3–12. [CrossRef]
Nessim, W. , Zhang, F. , Changlu, Z. , and Zhenxia, Z. , 2012, “ A Simulation Study of an Advanced Thermal Management System for Heavy Duty Diesel Engines,” International Conference on Mechanical Engineering and Material Science (MEMS 2012), Shanghai, Dec. 28–30, pp. 287–290.
Lagoudas, D. C. , 2008, Shape Memory Alloys: Modeling and Engineering Applications, Springer, New York.
Rizzoni, R. , Merlin, M. , and Casari, D. , 2013, “ Shape Recovery Behaviour of Shape Memory Thin Strips in Cylindrical Bending: Experiments and Modelling,” Continuum Mech. Thermodyn., 25(2–4), pp. 207–227. [CrossRef]
Suman, A. , Fortini, A. , Aldi, N. , Merlin, M. , and Pinelli, M. , 2015, “ A Shape Memory Alloy-Based Morphing Axial Fan Blade—Part II: Blade Shape and CFD Analyses,” ASME Paper No. GT2015-42700.
Everett, G. B. , 1974, “ Comparison of Modulated (Viscous) Versus On-Off Fan Clutches,” SAE Technical Paper No. 740596.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Temperature trend during the engine warm-up [22]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

DSC curves of the untreated NiTi material

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Representative scheme of the SMA thermomechanical treatment

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Fan setup and blade shape sketches

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

SBTF functional scheme

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

SBTF thermal performance

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Temperature trends for Compound A: polymeric structure (H, M, and S) and SMA strips (SM and SS)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Digital captures from recorded video at blade tip view

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Blade tip superimpositions for activated and nonactivated conditions

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Timewise evolution of air temperature, airfoil camber at the blade tip and rotational fan velocity

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Blade shape evolution during the heating ramp at the tip view

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In