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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

# Prediction of Auto-Ignition Temperatures and Delays for Gas Turbine Applications

[+] Author and Article Information
Roda Bounaceur, Baptiste Sirjean, René Fournet

LRGP, CNRS,
Université de Lorraine,
1, Rue Grandville, BP 20451,
Nancy 54001, France

Pierre-Alexandre Glaude

LRGP, CNRS,
Université de Lorraine,
1, Rue Grandville, BP 20451,
Nancy 54001, France
e-mail: pierre-alexandre.glaude@univ-lorraine.fr

Pierre Montagne, Matthieu Vierling

GE Energy Product-Europe,
20 Avenue de Maréchal Juin, BP 379,
Belfort 90007, France

Michel Molière

IRTES-LERMPS,
Université de Technologie
de Belfort Montbéliard,
Belfort Cedex 90010, France

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received July 17, 2015; final manuscript received July 20, 2015; published online September 1, 2015. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 138(2), 021505 (Sep 01, 2015) (7 pages) Paper No: GTP-15-1341; doi: 10.1115/1.4031264 History: Received July 17, 2015

## Abstract

Gas turbines burn a large variety of gaseous fuels under elevated pressure and temperature conditions. During transient operations, variable gas/air mixtures are involved in the gas piping system. In order to predict the risk of auto-ignition events and ensure a safe operation of gas turbines, it is of the essence to know the lowest temperature at which spontaneous ignition of fuels may happen. Experimental auto-ignition data of hydrocarbon–air mixtures at elevated pressures are scarce and often not applicable in specific industrial conditions. Auto-ignition temperature (AIT) data correspond to temperature ranges in which fuels display an incipient reactivity, with timescales amounting in seconds or even in minutes instead of milliseconds in flames. In these conditions, the critical reactions are most often different from the ones governing the reactivity in a flame or in high temperature ignition. Some of the critical paths for AIT are similar to those encountered in slow oxidation. Therefore, the main available kinetic models that have been developed for fast combustion are unfortunately unable to represent properly these low temperature processes. A numerical approach addressing the influence of process conditions on the minimum AIT of different fuel/air mixtures has been developed. Several chemical models available in the literature have been tested, in order to identify the most robust ones. Based on previous works of our group, a model has been developed, which offers a fair reconciliation between experimental and calculated AIT data through a wide range of fuel compositions. This model has been validated against experimental auto-ignition delay times corresponding to high temperature in order to ensure its relevance not only for AIT aspects but also for the reactivity of gaseous fuels over the wide range of gas turbine operation conditions. In addition, the AITs of methane, of pure light alkanes, and of various blends representative of several natural gas and process-derived fuels were extensively covered. In particular, among alternative gas turbine fuels, hydrogen-rich gases are called to play an increasing part in the future so that their ignition characteristics have been addressed with particular care. Natural gas enriched with hydrogen, and different syngas fuels have been studied. AIT values have been evaluated in function of the equivalence ratio and pressure. All the results obtained have been fitted by means of a practical mathematical expression. The overall study leads to a simple correlation of AIT versus equivalence ratio/pressure.

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## Figures

Fig. 1

Minimum AIT versus number of carbon atoms for different fuel/air mixtures at 1 bar

Fig. 2

AIT of methane/air mixture as a function of pressure: (a) equivalence ratio 2 and (b) equivalence ratio 14.3. Points are experimental data, lines are simulations.

Fig. 3

AIT of (a) propane/air and (b) n-butane/air mixture as a function of pressure. Points are experimental data, lines are simulations.

Fig. 4

AIT of methane/propane/air mixtures at P = 1 bar and different equivalence ratios. Points are experimental data, lines are simulations.

Fig. 5

Auto-ignition delay times for methane/hydrogen/oxygen/argon mixtures. Points are experimental data, lines are simulations.

Fig. 6

Auto-ignition delay times for methane (a), ethane (b), and n-butane (c) in shock tube. Points are experimental data, lines are simulations.

Fig. 7

Auto-ignition delay times for (a) methane/ethane and (b) natural gas in shock tube. Points are experimental data, lines are simulations.

Fig. 8

Simulated AITs for the blend B5 as a function of pressure and equivalence ratio

Fig. 9

Fit of coefficients of the AIT versus ϕ law as a function of pressure in the case of mixture B5

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