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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

The Ultrahigh Efficiency Gas Turbine Engine With Stator Internal Combustion

[+] Author and Article Information
Meinhard T. Schobeiri

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Texas A&M University,
College Station, TX 77843
e-mail: tschobeiri@tamu.edu

Seyed M. Ghoreyshi

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Texas A&M University,
College Station, TX 77843

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received July 20, 2015; final manuscript received July 29, 2015; published online September 1, 2015. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 138(2), 021506 (Sep 01, 2015) (14 pages) Paper No: GTP-15-1351; doi: 10.1115/1.4031273 History: Received July 20, 2015

The current article introduces a physics-based revolutionary technology that enables energy efficiency and environmental compatibility goals of future generation aircraft and power generation gas turbines (GTs). An ultrahigh efficiency GT technology (UHEGT) is developed, where the combustion process is no longer contained in isolation between the compressor and turbine, rather distributed in three stages and integrated within the first three high pressure (HP) turbine stator rows. The proposed distributed combustion results in high thermal efficiencies, which cannot be achieved by conventional GT engines. Particular fundamental issues of aerothermodynamic design, combustion, and heat transfer are addressed in this study along with comprehensive computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. The aerothermodynamic study shows that the UHEGT-concept improves the thermal efficiency of GTs 5–7% above the current most advanced high efficiency GT engines, such as Alstom GT24. Multiple configurations are designed and simulated numerically to achieve the optimum configuration for UHEGT. CFD simulations include combustion process in conjunction with a rotating turbine row. Temperature and velocity distributions are investigated as well as power generation, pressure losses, and NOx emissions. Results show that the configuration in which fuel is injected into the domain through cylindrical tubes provides the best combustion process and the most uniform temperature distribution at the rotor inlet.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

CAES facility, Huntorf, Germany, from Ref. [2]. (1) LP-gear, HP-compressor train, (2) electric motor/generator, (3) GT with two combustion chambers and two multistage turbines, (4) air storage.

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Fig. 2.

CAES GT engine, from Ref. [2]

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Fig. 3

Process comparison for (a) baseline-conventional GT, (b) GT-24, and (c) UHEGT (four stages), from Ref. [6] and [7]. Detailed processes are: compression 1–2, combustion 2–3, 4–5, 6–7, and 8–9; expansion: 3–4, 5–6, 7–8 and 9–10.

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Fig. 4.

(a) Thermal efficiency and (b) specific work comparison of baseline GT, GT-24, and different UHEGT configurations

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Fig. 6

Swirling flow: midspan velocity streamlines (a), and velocity vectors (b)

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Fig. 7

Pressure coefficient distribution along suction and pressure surfaces

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Fig. 8

Configuration 1: cylindrical fuel injector

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Fig. 9

Configuration 1: computational domain

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Fig. 10

Configuration 2: geometry

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Fig. 11

Configuration 3: (a) single layer and (b) multilayer vortex generators; (c) gaseous fuel injector in the center of the swirler

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Fig. 12

Configuration 3: computational domain

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Fig. 13

(a) Prism grid with triangular base for the main domains in configurations 1 and 2. (b) Boundary layer grid on the blade surface in configurations 1 and 2. (c) Boundary layer grid on the fuel injector surface in configuration 1. (d) Structured hexahedral grid for the stator/rotor components in configuration 3.

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Fig. 14

Grid independence study: (a) velocity and (b) temperature distributions on the midspan line at rotor inlet for configuration 1

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Fig. 15

Configuration 1: midspan velocity distribution in stationary frame

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Fig. 16

Configuration 1: midspan velocity vectors in relative frame

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Fig. 17

Configuration 1: fuel injector, velocity vectors, and vonKarman vortices

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Fig. 18

Configuration 1: midspan temperature distribution

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Fig. 19

Configuration 1: temperature distribution before and after stator and rotor

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Fig. 20

Configuration 1: temperature distribution at the rotor inlet (nonuniformity = 9.2%)

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Fig. 21

Configuration 1: meridional temperature distribution

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Fig. 22

Modified configuration 1: temperature distribution at the rotor inlet (nonuniformity = 5.1%)

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Fig. 23

Modified configuration 1: meridional temperature distribution

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Fig. 24

Configuration 1: average temperature profile

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Fig. 25

Configuration 1: average fuel mass fraction profile

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Fig. 26

Configuration 2, blade inlet and fuel injectors: velocity vectors

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Fig. 27

Configuration 2, fuel injectors: fuel ejection from the cutting surface into the flow field

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Fig. 28

Configuration 2: midspan temperature distribution

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Fig. 29

Modified configuration 2: midspan temperature distribution

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Fig. 30

Configuration 3: midspan velocity distribution in stationary frame

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Fig. 31

Configuration 3: midspan velocity vectors in relative frame

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Fig. 32

Configuration 3: temperature distribution at span = 0.6

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Fig. 5

Technology change from conventional GT to more advanced GT24/26 and the most advanced engine with an integrated UHEGT technology: (a) conventional technology, (b) New technology, and (c) UHEGT technology

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Fig. 33

Configuration 3: temperature distribution before and after stator and rotor

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Fig. 34

Configuration 3: temperature distribution at the rotor inlet

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Fig. 35

Configuration 3: meridional temperature distribution

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Fig. 36

Configuration 3: average temperature profile

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Fig. 37

Configuration 3: average fuel mass fraction profile

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Fig. 38

Configuration 1: single-stage sample turbine

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Fig. 39

Configuration 3: single-stage sample turbine

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