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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Controls, Diagnostics, and Instrumentation

Multi-angular Flame Measurements and Analysis in a Supersonic Wind Tunnel Using Fiber-Based Endoscopes

[+] Author and Article Information
Lin Ma

Department of Aerospace and
Ocean Engineering,
Virginia Tech,
Blacksburg, VA 24061;
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Virginia Tech,
Blacksburg, VA 24061
e-mail: linma@vt.edu

Andrew J. Wickersham

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Virginia Tech,
Blacksburg, VA 24061
e-mail: ajwickersham@gmail.com

Wenjiang Xu

Department of Aerospace and
Ocean Engineering,
Virginia Tech,
Blacksburg, VA 24061
e-mail: wjxu@vt.edu

Scott J. Peltier

Air Force Research Laboratory,
Dayton, OH 45433
e-mail: scott.peltier.4.ctr@us.af.mil

Timothy M. Ombrello

Air Force Research Laboratory,
Dayton, OH 45433
e-mail: timothy.ombrello.1@us.af.mil

Campbell D. Carter

Air Force Research Laboratory,
Dayton, OH 45433
e-mail: campbell.carter@us.af.mil

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Controls, Diagnostics and Instrumentation Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received July 14, 2015; final manuscript received July 30, 2015; published online September 1, 2015. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 138(2), 021601 (Sep 01, 2015) (10 pages) Paper No: GTP-15-1300; doi: 10.1115/1.4031306 History: Received July 14, 2015

This paper reports new measurements and analysis made in the Research Cell 19 supersonic wind-tunnel facility housed at the Air Force Research Laboratory. The measurements include planar chemiluminescence from multiple angular positions obtained using fiber-based endoscopes (FBEs) and the accompanying velocity fields obtained using particle image velocimetry (PIV). The measurements capture the flame dynamics from different angles (e.g., the top and both sides) simultaneously. The analysis of such data by proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) will also be reported. Nonintrusive and full-field imaging measurements provide a wealth of information for model validation and design optimization of propulsion systems. However, it is challenging to obtain such measurements due to various implementation difficulties such as optical access, thermal management, and equipment cost. This work therefore explores the application of the FBEs for nonintrusive imaging measurements in the supersonic propulsion systems. The FBEs used in this work are demonstrated to overcome many of the practical difficulties and significantly facilitate the measurements. The FBEs are bendable and have relatively small footprints (compared to high-speed cameras), which facilitates line-of-sight optical access. Also, the FBEs can tolerate higher temperatures than high-speed cameras, ameliorating the thermal management issues. Finally, the FBEs, after customization, can enable the capture of multiple images (e.g., images of the flow fields at multi-angles) onto the same camera chip, greatly reducing the equipment cost of the measurements. The multi-angle data sets, enabled by the FBEs as discussed above, were analyzed by POD to extract the dominating flame modes when examined from various angular positions. Similar analysis was performed on the accompanying PIV data to examine the corresponding modes of the flow fields. The POD analysis provides a quantitative measure of the dominating spatial modes of the flame and flow structures, and is an effective mathematical tool to extract key physics from large data sets as the high-speed measurements collected in this study. However, the past POD analysis has been limited to data obtained from one orientation only. The availability of data at multiple angles in this study is expected to provide further insights into the flame and flow structures in high-speed propulsion systems.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic of cavity-based flowpath

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Fig. 2

Top panel: schematic of the experimental setup using eight FBEs to obtain multi-angle chemiluminescence measurements. Bottom panel: a photo of one of the FBEs used.

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Fig. 3

Orientations of the six FBEs determined from the viewing registration method. The orientations are, respectively: (a) FBE1 (17.8 deg), (b) FBE3 (0.0 deg), (c) FBE4 (38.4 deg), (d) FBE5 (180.0 deg), (e) FBE6 (144.0 deg), and (f) FBE7 (91.9 deg).

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Fig. 4

A set of instantaneous images obtained by the six FBEssimultaneously under the fuel-lean conditions as listed in Table 1

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Fig. 5

First eigenmode of fuel-lean flame

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Fig. 6

First eigenmode of fuel-rich flame

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Fig. 7

Second eigenmode of fuel-lean flame

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Fig. 8

Second eigenmode of fuel-rich flame

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Fig. 9

Power spectrum of fuel-lean conditions from FBE1 (top panel) and FBE3 (bottom panel)

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Fig. 10

Power spectrum of FBE 8 for fuel-lean (upper) and fuel-rich (lower) conditions

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Fig. 11

Ensemble-averaged velocity fields for fuel-lean (upper) and fuel-rich (lower) conditions with overlaid estimated pathlines

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Fig. 12

First four PIV eigenmodes for fuel-lean (left) and fuel-rich (right) conditions

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