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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Investigations of the Stabilities of Piloted Flames Using Blast Furnace Gas

[+] Author and Article Information
Chunyan Li, Haojie Tang, Liyue Jing

Key Laboratory for Thermal Science
and Power Engineering,
Department of Thermal Engineering,
Tsinghua University,
Beijing 100084, China

Min Zhu

Key Laboratory for Thermal Science
and Power Engineering,
Department of Thermal Engineering,
Tsinghua University,
Beijing 100084, China
e-mail: zhumin@tsinghua.edu.cn

1Present address: Dongfang Electric Corporation, Sichuan 610036, China.

2Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received July 24, 2015; final manuscript received August 5, 2015; published online September 22, 2015. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 138(3), 031505 (Sep 22, 2015) (10 pages) Paper No: GTP-15-1365; doi: 10.1115/1.4031348 History: Received July 24, 2015; Revised August 05, 2015

The effective utilization of low-grade energy sources generated from steel-making processes provides not only excellent opportunities for low cost power generation but also a significant means for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. In this paper, the work was carried out to study the static and dynamic combustion instabilities for gas turbine (GT) combustors burning low-calorific-value blast furnace gas (BFG). A burner was designed to stabilize the BFG flame with central pilot flames. A diagnostic system was set up to detect the characteristics of flame dynamics. In the experiments, the fuel ratio between the pilot and main burner, and the equivalence ratio of the main flame and the annular flow velocity were varied for the investigation of the combustion lean blowout (LBO) limits. The flame dynamics near LBO were investigated. The dynamic responses of the flame to flow perturbations were also measured. A network model was employed to study and validate the blowout mechanisms. The LBO limits were calculated and compared with experimental results for various equivalence ratios.

Copyright © 2016 by ASME
Topics: Flames
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Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic of experimental setup

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Fig. 2

The geometry of three concentric pipes

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Fig. 3

Process of LBO of piloted flames, images taken at Re = 7800 and ϕp  = 0.7. (a) Methane flame and (b) BFG flame.

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Fig. 4

Simulation of laminar flame speed varying with equivalence ratio for both the methane (square lines) and BFG (circle lines) flames

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Fig. 5

Measurements of flame blowout equivalence ratio and trigger point for both the methane (circle and square lines) and BFG (triangle and diamond lines) flames with Re = 7800 and ϕp  = 0.7

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Fig. 6

FTF measurements for a BFG flame

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Fig. 7

Flame heat release rate oscillation measurement (a), corresponding flame dynamic response (b) and luminance intensity description of flame structure developing process (c) at 60 Hz forcing. Images taken at Re = 4000, ϕm = 0.95, ϕp = 0.8, u′/u = 0.4.

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Fig. 8

Flame structure captured with high-speed camera before (a) and after (b) Abel transform. Images taken at Re = 4000, ϕm = 0.95, ϕp = 0.8, u′/u = 0.2, f = 60 Hz. (a) Before Abel transform and (b) after Abel transform.

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Fig. 9

Flame dynamic response change with frequency. Images taken at Re = 4000, ϕm = 0.95, ϕp = 0.8, u′/u = 0.2.

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Fig. 10

Dynamic structures of flame luminance intensity under 60 Hz perturbation with different pilot flame equivalence ratios at (a) ϕp = 0.0, (b) ϕp = 0.4, and (c) ϕp = 0.8. Working condition Re = 4000, ϕm = 0.95, u′/u = 0.2.

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Fig. 11

Dynamic structures of flame luminance intensity under 150 Hz perturbation with different pilot flame equivalence ratios at (a) ϕp = 0.0, (b) ϕp = 0.4, and (c) ϕp = 0.8. Working condition Re = 4000, ϕm = 0.95, u′/u = 0.2.

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Fig. 12

Example flow field of a bluff-body flame and the element distribution of the network model used for LBO prediction

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Fig. 13

Simulated flame blowout process of methane Re = 7800 and ϕp = 0.7

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Fig. 14

Simulated flame blowout process of BFG Re = 7800 and ϕp = 0.7

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Fig. 15

Comparison of simulation results (thin lines) and experimental results (thick lines) for the methane (circle and square lines) and BFG (triangle and diamond lines) flames Re = 7800 and ϕp = 0.7

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