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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Cycle Innovations

Systematic Fluid Selection for Organic Rankine Cycles and Performance Analysis for a Combined High and Low Temperature Cycle

[+] Author and Article Information
Maximilian Roedder, Christoph Laux

Faculty of Mechanical and Process Engineering,
University of Applied Sciences Duesseldorf,
Josef-Gockeln-Str. 9,
Duesseldorf 40474, Germany

Matthias Neef

Faculty Mechanical and Process Engineering,
University of Applied Sciences Duesseldorf,
Josef-Gockeln-Str. 9,
Duesseldorf 40474, Germany
e-mail: matthias.neef@hs-duesseldorf.de

Klaus-P. Priebe

ORC-Consult,
Castroper Str. 112,
Dortmund 44357, Germany

Contributed by the Cycle Innovations Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received July 13, 2015; final manuscript received August 12, 2015; published online September 22, 2015. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 138(3), 031701 (Sep 22, 2015) (9 pages) Paper No: GTP-15-1272; doi: 10.1115/1.4031361 History: Received July 13, 2015; Revised August 12, 2015

The organic Rankine cycle (ORC) is an established thermodynamic process that converts waste heat to electric energy. Due to the wide range of organic working fluids available the fluid selection adds an additional degree-of-freedom to the early design phase of an ORC process. Despite thermodynamic aspects such as the temperature level of the heat source, other technical, economic, and safety aspects have to be considered. For the fluid selection process in this paper, 22 criteria were identified in six main categories while distinguishing between elimination (EC) and tolerance criteria (TC). For an ORC design, the suggested method follows a practical engineering approach and can be used as a structured way to limit the number of interesting working fluids before starting a detailed performance analysis of the most promising candidates. For the first time, the selection process is applied to a two-stage reference cycle, which uses the waste heat of a large reciprocating engine for cogeneration power plants. It consists of a high temperature (HT) and a low temperature (LT) cycle in which the condensation heat of the HT cycle provides the heat input of the LT cycle. After the fluid selection process, the detailed thermodynamic cycle design is carried out with a thermodynamic design tool that also includes a database for organic working fluids. The investigated ORC cycle shows a net thermal efficiency of about 17.4% in the HT cycle with toluene as the working fluid and 6.2% in LT cycle with isobutane as the working fluid. The electric efficiency of the cogeneration plant increases from 40.4% to 46.97% with the both stages of the two-stage ORC in operation.

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Topics: Fluids , Cycles
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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Course of the selection procedure (flow chart)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Simple Rankine cycle (without recuperator)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Two-stage ORC with simulation parameters

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