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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Turbomachinery

Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics of a Closed Blade Cascade Wind Tunnel for Organic Vapors

[+] Author and Article Information
Felix Reinker

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Muenster University of Applied Sciences,
Stegerwaldstr. 39,
Steinfurt 48565, Germany
e-mail: f.reinker@fh-muenster.de

Karsten Hasselmann

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Muenster University of Applied Sciences,
Stegerwaldstr. 39,
Steinfurt 48565, Germany
e-mail: hasselmann@fh-muenster.de

Stefan aus der Wiesche

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Muenster University of Applied Sciences,
Stegerwaldstr. 39,
Steinfurt 48565, Germany
e-mail: wiesche@fh-muenster.de

Eugeny Y. Kenig

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Paderborn,
Pohlweg 55,
Paderborn 33098, Germany
e-mail: eugeny.kenig@upd.de

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Turbomachinery Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received July 21, 2015; final manuscript received August 14, 2015; published online October 27, 2015. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 138(5), 052601 (Oct 27, 2015) (8 pages) Paper No: GTP-15-1354; doi: 10.1115/1.4031390 History: Received July 21, 2015; Revised August 14, 2015

The organic Rankine cycle (ORC) offers great potential for waste heat recovery and use of low-temperature sources for power generation. However, the ORC thermal efficiency is limited by the relatively low-temperature level, and it is, therefore, of major importance to design ORC components with high efficiencies and minimized losses. The use of organic fluids creates new challenges for turbine design, due to dense gas behavior and the low speed of sound. The design and performance predictions for steam and gas turbines have been initially based on measurements and numerical simulations of flow through two-dimensional cascades of blades. In case of ORC turbines and related fluids, such an approach requires the use of a specially designed closed cascade wind tunnel. In this contribution the design and process engineering of a continuous running wind tunnel for organic vapors is presented. The wind tunnel can be operated with heavy weight organic working fluids within a broad range of pressure and temperature levels. For this reason, the use of classical design rules for atmospheric wind tunnels is limited. The thermodynamic cycle process in the closed wind tunnel is modeled, and simulated by means of a professional power plant analysis tool, including a database for the ORC fluid properties under consideration. The wind tunnel is designed as a pressure vessel system and this leads to significant challenges particular for the employed wide angle diffuser, settling chamber, and nozzle. Detailed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was performed in order to optimize the important wind tunnel sections.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Types of working fluids

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Fig. 2

Compressibility factor Z as function of the temperature T with lines of constant entropy s (based on refprop data for Novec649®)

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Fig. 4

Three-dimensional model of the closed circuit wind tunnel for ORC fluids

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Fig. 5

Flow behavior and pressure drop of the diffuser with two (a) and four (b) screens

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Fig. 6

Influence of screens in the diffuser on the velocity profile in the settling chamber

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Fig. 7

Comparison of the ideal shape, the geometrically optimized shape, and the flow optimized shape of the contraction zone

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Fig. 8

(a) CFD analysis of the geometrically optimized shape, (b) critical zone with the increase of speed, and (c) critical zone after the flow field optimization

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Fig. 9

EBSILON® Model of the closed circuit wind tunnel including numbered blocks for identification in the thermodynamic cycle

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Fig. 10

Thermodynamic cycle of the closed circuit wind tunnel for load-free conditions in the test section, drawn in a specific enthalpy—specific entropy plane

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Fig. 11

Thermodynamic cycle of the closed circuit wind tunnel for loaded conditions in the test section, drawn in a specific enthalpy—specific entropy plane

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Fig. 12

Temperature—specific entropy plane, showing the vapor saturation line of Novec 649®, the maximum temperature and maximum pressure for the facility, the planned area of operation (bigger ellipse) and the position of the presented EBSILON® model (smaller ellipse)

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