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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Diesel Spray Rate-of-Momentum Measurement Uncertainties and Diagnostic Considerations

[+] Author and Article Information
Benjamin W. Knox

G. W. Woodruff School of
Mechanical Engineering,
Georgia Institute of Technology,
Atlanta, GA 30332
e-mail: bknox3@gatech.edu

Michael J. Franze

G. W. Woodruff School of
Mechanical Engineering,
Georgia Institute of Technology,
Atlanta, GA 30332
e-mail: mfranze3@gatech.edu

Caroline L. Genzale

G. W. Woodruff School of
Mechanical Engineering,
Georgia Institute of Technology,
Atlanta, GA 30332
e-mail: caroline.genzale@me.gatech.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received June 18, 2015; final manuscript received August 5, 2015; published online September 29, 2015. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 138(3), 031507 (Sep 29, 2015) (9 pages) Paper No: GTP-15-1208; doi: 10.1115/1.4031432 History: Received June 18, 2015; Revised August 05, 2015

Interpretation of combustion and emissions outcomes in diesel engines is often enhanced by accurate knowledge of the transient fuel delivery rate and flow characteristics of the injector nozzle. Important physical characteristics of these flows, including velocity profile and flow separation or cavitation effects, are difficult to measure directly, but can be characterized from a flow-averaged perspective through the measurement of nozzle flow coefficients, namely, the discharge, velocity, and area-contraction coefficients. Both the transient fuel mass flow rate and the flow-averaged nozzle coefficients can be found by measuring the mass and momentum flux of the fuel stream leaving the nozzle during injection through the application of an impingement technique, where fuel is sprayed onto the face of a transducer calibrated for force measurement in close proximity to the nozzle. While several published experiments have employed the spray impingement method to quantify rate of injection, the experimental setup and equipment selections vary widely and may contribute to disagreements in measured rate of injection. This paper identifies and provides estimates of measurement uncertainties that can arise when employing different experimental setups using the impingement method. It was observed that the impingement technique was sensitive to the design of the strike cap, specifically the contact area between the cap and transducer diaphragm, in addition to fuel temperature. Conversely, we observed that the impingement technique was relatively insensitive to angular and vertical misalignment, where the uncertainty can be estimated using control volume analysis. Transducer selection, specifically those with low acceleration sensitivity, high resonant frequency, and integrated electronics piezoelectric circuitry, substantially reduces the noise in the measurement.

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References

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic of apparatus used for rate-of-momentum measurement

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Fig. 2

Fluid property variation with temperature at 830 bar [7,8]

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Fig. 3

Schematic of strike-cap geometries

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Fig. 4

Calibration of each strike cap, coupled to the PCB 113B26 pressure transducer, from dead-weight tests

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Fig. 5

Raw measured rate of momentum for each strike cap shown in Fig. 3

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Fig. 6

Calibrated and drift-corrected rate of momentum for each strike cap shown in Fig. 3

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Fig. 7

Angular sensitivity for time-averaged rate of momentum over steady portion of injection

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Fig. 8

Vertical sensitivity for time-averaged rate of momentum over steady portion of injection

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Fig. 9

Calibrated, but not drift corrected, rate of momentum versus time for different injector body temperatures

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Fig. 10

Temperature sensitivity for time-averaged rate of momentum over steady portion of injection

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Fig. 11

Ensemble-averaged rate of momentum using two different sensors under identical conditions. Each profile is the ensemble average of 20 injection events.

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Fig. 12

Rate of momentum for a single injection event, using two different sensors under identical conditions

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Fig. 13

Measured common rail pressure variation over 20 injections (injection begins at 0 ms)

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Fig. 14

Fuel temperature effects on injected mass. “Scaling” is the expected injected mass based on change in fuel density with temperature.

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Fig. 15

Fuel-injector body temperature effects on nozzle flow coefficients

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