0
Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Effect of Slot Injection and Effusion Array on the Liner Heat Transfer Coefficient of a Scaled Lean-Burn Combustor With Representative Swirling Flow

[+] Author and Article Information
Antonio Andreini

DIEF—Department of Industrial Engineering,
University of Florence,
Florence 50139, Italy
e-mail: antonio.andreini@htc.de.unifi.it

Bruno Facchini

DIEF—Department of Industrial Engineering,
University of Florence,
Florence 50139, Italy
e-mail: bruno.facchini@htc.de.unifi.it

Riccardo Becchi

DIEF—Department of Industrial Engineering,
University of Florence,
Florence 50139, Italy
e-mail: riccardo.becchi@htc.de.unifi.it

Alessio Picchi

DIEF—Department of Industrial Engineering,
University of Florence,
Florence 50139, Italy
e-mail: alessio.picchi@htc.de.unifi.it

Fabio Turrini

GE Avio S.r.l. Engineering,
Combustion Systems Office,
Turin 10040, Italy
e-mail: fabio.turrini@avioaero.com

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received July 14, 2015; final manuscript received July 31, 2015; published online October 13, 2015. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 138(4), 041501 (Oct 13, 2015) (10 pages) Paper No: GTP-15-1288; doi: 10.1115/1.4031434 History: Received July 14, 2015; Revised July 31, 2015

International standards regarding polluting emissions from civil aircraft engines are becoming gradually even more stringent. Nowadays, the most prominent way to meet the target of reducing NOx emissions in modern aero-engine combustors is represented by lean-burn technology. Swirl injectors are usually employed to provide the dominant flame stabilization mechanism coupled to high-efficiency fuel atomization solutions. These systems generate very complex flow structures, such as recirculations, vortex breakdown, and processing vortex core, which affect the distribution and therefore the estimation of heat loads on the gas side of the liner as well as the interaction with the cooling system flows. The main purpose of the present work is to provide detailed measurements of heat transfer coefficient (HTC) on the gas side of a scaled combustor liner highlighting the impact of the cooling flows injected through a slot system and an effusion array. Furthermore, for a deeper understanding of the interaction phenomena between gas and cooling flows, a standard two-dimensional (2D) particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique has been employed to characterize the combustor flow field. The experimental arrangement has been developed within EU project LEMCOTEC and consists of a nonreactive three sectors planar rig installed in an open-loop wind tunnel. Three swirlers, replicating the real geometry of a GE Avio partially evaporated and rapid mixing (PERM) injector technology, are used to achieve representative swirled flow conditions in the test section. The effusion geometry is composed by a staggered array of 1236 circular holes with an inclination of 30 deg, while the slot exit has a constant height of 5 mm. The experimental campaign has been carried out using a thermochromic liquid crystals (TLCs) steady-state technique with a thin Inconel heating foil and imposing several cooling flow conditions in terms of slot coolant consumption and effusion pressure drop. A data reduction procedure has been developed to take into account the nonuniform heat generation and the heat loss across the liner plate. Results in terms of 2D maps and averaged distributions of HTC have been supported by flow field measurements with 2D PIV technique focussed on the corner recirculation region.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2016 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Wilfert, G. , Sieber, J. , Rolt, A. , Baker, N. , Touyeras, A. , and Colantuoni, S. , 2007, “ New Environmental Friendly Aero Engine Core Concepts,” 18th International Symposium on Air Breathing Engines Conference, Beijing, Sept. 2–7, ISABE Paper No. ISABE-2007-1120.
Lefebvre, A. H. , 1998, Gas Turbine Combustion, 2nd ed., Taylor & Francis, Philadelphia.
Metzger, D. , Takeuchi, D. , and Kuenstler, P. , 1973, “ Effectiveness and Heat Transfer With Full-Coverage Film Cooling,” ASME J. Eng. Power, 95(3), pp. 180–184. [CrossRef]
Crawford, M. E. , Kays, W. M. , and Moffat, R. J. , 1980, “ Full-Coverage Film Cooling—Part 1: Comparison of Heat Transfer Data for Three Injection Angles,” ASME J. Eng. Power, 102(4), pp. 1000–1005. [CrossRef]
Martinez-Botas, R. F. , and Yuen, C. H. N. , 2000, “ Measurement of Local Heat Transfer Coefficient and Film Cooling Effectiveness Through Discrete Holes,” ASME Paper No. 2000-GT-243.
Kelly, G. B. , and Bogard, D. G. , 2003, “ An Investigation of the Heat Transfer for Full Coverage Film Cooling,” ASME Paper No. GT2003-38716.
Kakade, V. U. , Thorpe, S. J. , and Gerendas, M. , 2012, “ Effusion-Cooling Performance at Gas Turbine Combustor Representative Flow Conditions,” ASME Paper No. GT2012-68115.
Andreini, A. , Caciolli, G. , Facchini, B. , and Tarchi, L. , 2013, “ Experimental Evaluation of the Density Ratio Effects on the Cooling Performance of a Combined Slot/Effusion Combustor Cooling System,” ISRN Aerospace Eng., 2013, p. 423190. [CrossRef]
Vogel, J. , and Eaton, J. , 1985, “ Combined Heat Transfer and Fluid Dynamic Measurements Downstream of a Backward-Facing Step,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 107(4), pp. 922–929. [CrossRef]
Shisnova, E. , Roganova, P. , Grabarnika, S. , and Zabolotskya, V. , 1988, “ Heat Transfer in the Recirculating Region Formed by a Backward-Facing Step,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 31(8), pp. 1557–1562. [CrossRef]
Facchini, B. , Maiuolo, F. , Tarchi, L. , and Coutandin, D. , 2012, “ Experimental Investigation on the Effects of a Large Recirculating Area on the Performance of an Effusion Cooled Combustor Liner,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 134(4), p. 041505. [CrossRef]
Patil, S. , Sedalor, T. , Tafti, D. , Ekkad, S. , Kim, Y. , Dutta, P. , Moon, H. , and Srinivasan, R. , 2011, “ Study of Flow and Convective Heat Transfer in a Simulated Scaled Up Low Emission Annular Combustor,” J. Therm. Sci. Eng. Appl., 3(3), p. 031010. [CrossRef]
Patil, S. , Abraham, S. , Tafti, D. , Ekkad, S. , Kim, Y. , Dutta, P. , Moon, H. , and Srinivasan, R. , 2011, “ Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Convective Heat Transfer in a Gas Turbine Can Combustor,” ASME J. Turbomach., 133(1), p. 011028. [CrossRef]
Andreini, A. , Caciolli, G. , Facchini, B. , Picchi, A. , and Turrini, F. , 2014, “ Experimental Investigation of the Flow Field and the Heat Transfer on a Scaled Cooled Combustor Liner With Realistic Swirling Flow Generated by a Lean-Burn Injection System,” ASME J. Turbomach., 137(3), p. 031012. [CrossRef]
Wurm, B. , Schulz, A. , and Bauer, H. , 2009, “ A New Test Facility for Investigating the Interaction Between Swirl Flow and Wall Cooling Films in Combustors,” ASME Paper No. GT2009-59961.
Wurm, B. , Schulz, A. , Bauer, H. J. , and Gerendas, M. , 2012, “ Impact of Swirl Flow on the Cooling Performance of an Effusion Cooled Combustor Liner,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 134(12), p. 121503. [CrossRef]
Wurm, B. , Schulz, A. , Bauer, H. J. , and Gerendas, M. , 2013, “ Cooling Efficiency for Assessing the Cooling Performance of an Effusion Cooled Combustor Liner,” ASME Paper No. GT2013-94304.
Marinov, S. , Kern, M. , Merkle, K. , Zarzalis, N. , Peschiulli, A. , and Turrini, F. , 2010, “ On Swirl Stabilized Flame Characteristics Near the Weak Extinction Limit,” ASME Paper No. GT2010-22335.
Lilley, D. , 1977, “ Swirl Flows in Combustion: A Review,” AIAA J., 15(8), pp. 1063–1078. [CrossRef]
Andrews, G. E. , Ahmed, N. , Phylaktou, R. , and King, P. , 2009, “ Weak Extinction in Low NOx Gas Turbine Combustion,” ASME Paper No. GT2009-59830.
Raffel, M. , Willert, C. , and Kompenhans, J. , 2007, Particle Image Velocimetry—A Practical Guide, 2nd ed., Springer, New York.
Han, J. C. , Dutta, S. , and Ekkad, S. , 2000, Gas Turbine Heat Transfer and Cooling Technology, 2nd ed., Taylor & Francis, New York.
Chan, T. L. , Ashforth-Frost, S. , and Jambunathan, K. , 2001, “ Calibrating for Viewing Angle Effect During Heat Transfer Measurements on a Curved Surface,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 44(12), pp. 2209–2223. [CrossRef]
Caciolli, G. , Facchini, B. , Picchi, A. , and Tarchi, L. , 2013, “ Comparison Between PSP and TLC Steady State Techniques for Adiabatic Effectiveness Measurement on a Multiperforated Plate,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci., 48, pp. 122–133. [CrossRef]
Facchini, B. , Maiuolo, F. , Tarchi, L. , and Coutandin, D. , 2010, “ Combined Effect of Slot Injection, Effusion Array and Dilution Hole on the Heat Transfer Coefficient of a Real Combustor Liner—Part 1 Experimental Analysis,” ASME Paper No. GT2010-22936.
Dittus, P. W. , and Boelter, L. M. , 1930, “ Heat Transfer in Automobile Radiators of the Tubular Type,” Univ. Calif. Publ. Eng., 2(13), pp. 443–461.
Charonko, J. J. , and Vlachos, P. P. , 2013, “ Estimation of Uncertainty Bounds for Individual Particle Image Velocimetry Measurements From Cross-Correlation Peak Ratio,” Meas. Sci. Technol., 24(6), p. 065301. [CrossRef]
Kline, S. J. , and McClintock, F. A. , 1953, “ Describing Uncertainties in Single Sample Experiments,” ASME Mech. Eng., 75, pp. 3–8.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Cross-sectional view of the test rig with a detailed section of the PERM swirler

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Position of the PIV measurement plane

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Inconel surface electric heater

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Lateral-averaged Nusselt augmentation: effect of effusion injection (ΔP/Peff=0−3% ; W=0%)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Nusselt number distributions: effect of effusion system pressure drop (ΔP/Peff=0−3% ; W=0%)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Flow field in the corner RCZ

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Results of FEM analysis

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Nusselt number distributions: effect of slot cooling flows

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Lateral-averaged Nusselt number augmentation: effect of slot injection

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In