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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Flame Area Fluctuation Measurements in Velocity-Forced Premixed Gas Turbine Flames

[+] Author and Article Information
Alexander J. De Rosa

Turbulent Combustion Lab,
The Pennsylvania State University,
University Park, PA 16802
e-mail: Alexander.DeRosa@stevens.edu

Janith Samarasinghe

Turbulent Combustion Lab,
The Pennsylvania State University,
University Park, PA 16802
e-mail: rjs5309@psu.edu

Stephen J. Peluso

Turbulent Combustion Lab,
The Pennsylvania State University,
University Park, PA 16802
e-mail: sjp249@psu.edu

Bryan D. Quay

Turbulent Combustion Lab,
The Pennsylvania State University,
University Park, PA 16802
e-mail: bdq100@psu.edu

Domenic A. Santavicca

Turbulent Combustion Lab,
The Pennsylvania State University,
University Park, PA 16802
e-mail: das8@psu.edu

1Corresponding author. Current address: Stevens Institute of Technology, Castle Point on Hudson, Hoboken, NY 07030.

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received July 6, 2015; final manuscript received August 31, 2015; published online October 28, 2015. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 138(4), 041507 (Oct 28, 2015) (9 pages) Paper No: GTP-15-1236; doi: 10.1115/1.4031708 History: Received July 06, 2015; Revised August 31, 2015

Fluctuations in the heat release rate that occur during unstable combustion in lean-premixed gas turbine combustors can be attributed to velocity and equivalence ratio fluctuations. For a fully premixed flame, velocity fluctuations affect the heat release rate primarily by inducing changes in the flame area. In this paper, a technique to analyze changes in the flame area using chemiluminescence-based flame images is presented. The technique decomposes the flame area into separate components which characterize the relative contributions of area fluctuations in the large-scale structure and the small-scale wrinkling of the flame. The fluctuation in the wrinkled area of the flame which forms the flame brush is seen to dominate its response in the majority of cases tested. Analysis of the flame area associated with the large-scale structure of the flame resolves convective perturbations that move along the mean flame position. Results are presented that demonstrate the application of this technique to both single-nozzle and multi-nozzle flames.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
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Copyright © 2016 by ASME
Topics: Flames , Nozzles
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References

Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematics of test facility: (a) multi-nozzle combustor and (b) single-nozzle combustor

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Fig. 2

Instantaneous (top) and time-averaged (bottom), line-of-sight flame images: (a) single-nozzle combustor and (b) multinozzle combustor

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Fig. 3

Standard colorbar used for all images

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Fig. 4

Time-averaged, emission flame image from the single-nozzle combustor. Injector/combustor geometry is shown in gray.

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Fig. 5

Two-dimensional horizontal and vertical slices of the multi-nozzle flame (emission images): (a) photograph, (b) horizontal slice, (c) vertical slice, and (d) slices around the circumference of a single outer flame

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Fig. 6

Individual flame sheets combining to form an overall flame brush: (a) instantaneous flame location, (b) collated instantaneous positions, and (c) resultant flame image

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Fig. 7

Mean flame position (spatially resolved contributions to Amean) overlaid in black on the time-averaged emission flame image in the single-nozzle case

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Fig. 8

Envelope of the measured mean flame positions recorded in the single-nozzle case during flow modulation at 250 Hz overlaid on the time-averaged, emission flame image

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Fig. 9

Mean flame positions overlaid on horizontal slices of 3D chemiluminescence image and surface used to calculate mean flame area: (a) horizontal slices with mean flame position overlaid and (b) surface of mean flame area

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Fig. 10

Deviation in single-nozzle mean flame position over a forcing cycle at 450 Hz: (a) 0 deg phase angle, (b) 60 deg phase angle, (c) 120 deg phase angle, and (d) 180 deg phase angle

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Fig. 11

Fluctuating flame area components for a range of frequencies (single-nozzle) flame: (a) RMS fluctuation magnitude of flame area components and (b) phase difference between mean and wrinkled flame area fluctuations

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Fig. 12

Fluctuating flame area components for a range of frequencies (multi-nozzle) flame: (a) RMS fluctuation magnitude of flame area components and (b) phase difference between mean and wrinkled flame area fluctuations

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Fig. 13

Fluctuation of axially resolved flame area components at 190 Hz modulation: (a) 0 deg phase angle, (b) 60 deg phase angle, (c) 120 deg phase angle, and (d) 180 deg phase angle

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Fig. 14

RMS fluctuation magnitude and phase of axially resolved flame area components: (a) RMS fluctuation in area components and (b) phase of flame area components

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