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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Turbomachinery

Wake Analysis of a Finite Width Gurney Flap

[+] Author and Article Information
D. Holst

Chair of Fluid Dynamics,
Hermann-Föttinger-Institut,
Technische Universität Berlin,
Müller-Breslau-Straße 8,
Berlin 10623, Germany
e-mail: David.Holst@TU-Berlin.de

A. B. Bach, C. N. Nayeri, C. O. Paschereit

Chair of Fluid Dynamics,
Hermann-Föttinger-Institut,
Technische Universität Berlin,
Müller-Breslau-Straße 8,
Berlin 10623, Germany

G. Pechlivanoglou

SmartBlade GmbH,
Waldemarstr. 39,
Berlin 10999, Germany

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Turbomachinery Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received July 28, 2015; final manuscript received September 24, 2015; published online November 17, 2015. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 138(6), 062602 (Nov 17, 2015) (10 pages) Paper No: GTP-15-1379; doi: 10.1115/1.4031709 History: Received July 28, 2015; Revised September 24, 2015

The results of stereo particle-image-velocimetry (PIV) measurements are presented in this paper to gain further insight into the wake of a finite width Gurney flap. It is attached to an FX 63-137 airfoil which is known for a very good performance at low Reynolds numbers and is therefore used for small wind turbines and is most appropriate for tests in the low speed wind tunnel presented in this study. The Gurney flaps are a promising concept for load control on wind turbines but can have adverse side effects, e.g., shedding of additional vortices. The investigation focuses on frequencies and velocity distributions in the wake as well as on the structure of the induced tip vortices. Phase-averaged velocity fields are derived of a proper-orthogonal-decomposition (POD) based on the stereo PIV measurements. Additional hot-wire measurements were conducted to analyze the fluctuations downstream of the finite width Gurney flaps. Experiments indicate a general tip vortex structure that is independent from flap length but altered by the periodic shedding downstream of the flap. The influence of Gurney flaps on a small wind turbine is investigated by simulating a small 40 kW turbine in QBlade. They can serve as power control without the need of an active pitch system and the starting performance is additionally improved. The application of Gurney flaps implies tonal frequencies in the wake of the blade. Simulation results are used to estimate the resulting frequencies. However, the solution of Gurney flaps is a good candidate for large-scale wind turbine implementation as well. A FAST simulation of the NREL 5 MW turbine is used to generate realistic time series of the lift. The estimations of control capabilities predict a reduction in the standard deviation of the lift of up to 65%. Therefore, finite width Gurney flaps are promising to extend the lifetime of future wind turbines.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Lift changing effect of a Gurney flap

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Fig. 2

Pressure distribution: central quarter-span Gurney flap downward. Color map depicts the change in absolute value of pressure coefficient in comparison to the base configuration without a flap. Positive change results in lift enhancement and negative in reduction. (a) Suction side and (b) pressure side.

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Fig. 5

Calculation of the phase-averaged PIV data: (a) phase portrait a1 and a2 and (b) phase-averaged calculation scheme

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Fig. 6

PSD at different positions

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Fig. 7

Central quarter-span Gurney flap

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Fig. 8

Semifinite half-span Gurney flap

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Fig. 9

Downwash behind a quarter-span flap. Isosurfaces of W/u∞=[0.25;0.0;0.05].

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Fig. 10

Streamwise vorticity behind a quarter-span flap. Isosurfaces of ωx c/u∞=[−4; 4] and W/u∞=0.05 identical to Fig. 9.

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Fig. 11

Downwash behind a half-span semifinite flap. Isosurfaces of W/u∞=[0.25;0.0;0.05].

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Fig. 12

Streamwise vorticity behind a half-span semifinite flap. Isosurfaces of ωx c/u∞=[−4; 4] and W/u∞=0.05 identical to Fig. 11.

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Fig. 13

Resulting frequency (Eq. (5); Sr = 0.14)

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Fig. 14

Power curve of the simulated sHAWT

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Fig. 15

Torque curve of the simulated sHAWT at low wind speeds

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Fig. 16

Time series and histogram of the lift based on an FAST simulation of the NREL 5 MW turbine

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