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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Normalized Knock Intensity Determination Based on the Knock Sensor Analysis to Have a Fixed Detection Threshold at Different Operating Conditions

[+] Author and Article Information
Mohammad Momeni Movahed

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Amirkabir University of Technology,
Tehran 15875-4413, Iran
e-mail: m_momeni@aut.ac.ir

Hassan Basirat Tabrizi

Mem. ASME
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Amirkabir University of Technology,
Tehran 15875-4413, Iran
e-mails: hbtabrizi@gmail.com; hbasirat@aut.ac.ir

Seyed Mostafa Agha Mirsalim

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Amirkabir University of Technology,
Tehran 15875-4413, Iran
e-mail: mirsalim@csr.ir

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received March 9, 2015; final manuscript received September 29, 2015; published online November 17, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Stani Bohac.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 138(6), 061501 (Nov 17, 2015) (9 pages) Paper No: GTP-15-1086; doi: 10.1115/1.4031789 History: Received March 09, 2015; Revised September 29, 2015

Processing the knock sensor's signal is the most common approach for knock detection in series production vehicles. Filtration, rectification, and integration in a defined knock window (KW) are main steps to compute the standard knock intensity (SKI). The SKI strongly depends on the engine operating conditions. In this study, a novel model is proposed based on the knock sensor analysis to determine the normalized knock intensity (NKI) with much less dependency on the operating conditions, cylinder numbers (CNs), and KW. Implementing the proposed normalization model, a fixed detection threshold can be used for knock detection at all operating conditions. To verify the model, an accurate knock detection method based on cylinder pressure analysis is utilized, which comprises intensity calculation and a novel technique for detection threshold determination. Experimental results at all operating conditions show a square of correlation coefficient greater than 0.7 when the knock intensity from the presented model is compared with the reference cylinder pressure based method. In addition, the model detects all heavy knocking cycles and there is no wrongly detected knocking combustion.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the experimental setup

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Fig. 2

Example of different steps for knock intensity determination using CPS (test #26, cylinder 4)

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Fig. 3

SKI determination model based on knock sensor analysis

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Fig. 4

NKI determination model based on knock sensor analysis

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Fig. 5

Determination of KW in heavy (a) and light (b) knocking combustions (test #26, cylinder 4)

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Fig. 6

Frequency components of the KSS for a heavy knocking combustion in cylinder 4 of test #26

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Fig. 7

Correlation between knock intensities from cylinder pressure and knock sensor analysis (test #26, cylinder 4, 6000 engine cycles): (a) SKI model and (b) NKI model

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Fig. 8

Comparison of knock detection using knock sensor and cylinder pressure analysis: (a) general description and (b) an example for cylinder 4 of test #26

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Fig. 9

Detection thresholds for SKI and NKI models: (a) and (b) reference tests (cylinder 2 of test #4), (c) and (d) effect of CN (cylinder 4 of test #4), and (e) and (f) effect of ES (cylinder 2 of test #43)

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Fig. 10

Effect of ES, EL, MT, CN, and KWL on minimum and maximum appropriate detection thresholds of SKI (a) and NKI (b) models

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