Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Turbomachinery

The Physics of H-Darrieus Turbine Starting Behavior

[+] Author and Article Information
Supakit Worasinchai

Renewable Energy Laboratory,
National Metal and Materials Technology
Center (MTEC),
Pathum Thani 12120, Thailand
e-mail: supakitw@mtec.or.th

Grant L. Ingram

School of Engineering and Computing Sciences,
University of Durham,
South Road,
Durham DH1 3LE, UK
e-mail: g.l.ingram@durham.ac.uk

Robert G. Dominy

Faculty of Engineering and Environment,
Northumbria University,
Newcastle Upon Tyne NE1 8ST, UK
e-mail: robert.dominy@northumbria.ac.uk

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Turbomachinery Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received July 15, 2015; final manuscript received September 29, 2015; published online November 24, 2015. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 138(6), 062605 (Nov 24, 2015) (11 pages) Paper No: GTP-15-1321; doi: 10.1115/1.4031870 History: Received July 15, 2015; Revised September 29, 2015

This paper provides a resolution to the contradictory accounts of whether or not the Darrieus turbine can self-start. The paper builds on previous work proposing an analogy between the aerofoil in Darrieus motion and flapping-wing flow mechanisms. This analogy suggests that unsteadiness could be exploited to generate additional thrust and that this unsteady thrust generation is governed by rotor geometry. Rotors which do not exploit this unsteadiness will not self-start. To confirm the hypothesis, unsteady effects were measured and then incorporated into a time-stepping rotor analysis and compared to experimental data for self-starting wind turbines. When unsteady effects were included, the model was able to predict the correct starting behavior. The fundamental physics of starting were also studied and parameters that govern the generation of unsteady thrust were explored, namely, chord-to-diameter and blade aspect ratios (ARs). Further simulation showed that the Darrieus rotor is prone to be locked in a deadband where the thrust is not continuous around a blade rotation. This discrete thrust is caused by the large variation in incidence angle during startup, making the Darrieus blade ineffective during part of the rotation. The results show that unsteady thrust can be promoted through an appropriate selection of blade aspect and chord-to-diameter ratios, therefore self-starting rotors may be designed. A new definition of self-starting is also proposed.

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Fig. 1

Darrieus turbine starting behavior (data from Chua [3] and Hill et al. [6])

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Fig. 2

Thrust-producing states at startup. (Reproduced with permission from Worasinchai et al. [8]. Copyright 2012 by ASME).

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Fig. 4

Pitch and plunge components

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Fig. 5

Pitch and plunge angles

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Fig. 6

Darrieus flight path and its analogy to flapping wings

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Fig. 8

Wingbeat patterns. (Adapted from Ref. [12].)

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Fig. 9

Aerofoils used in this paper

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Fig. 10

Aerofoil motion tested

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Fig. 11

Thrust coefficients

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Fig. 12

The shift of midstroke due to a cambered aerofoil section

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Fig. 13

Pressure distribution over SD7062 in normal and reversed mode at 15 deg incidence (Re=90,000,k=0.2)

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Fig. 14

Starting behavior validation

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Fig. 15

Darrieus turbine starting behavior and flow conditions that the blade experiences

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Fig. 16

Rotor geometry and starting performance

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Fig. 17

Cogging and resistive torques

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Fig. 18

Block diagram of starting behavior model




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