Deformation and damage accumulation occur by fundamental dislocation and diffusion mechanisms. An integrated creep–fatigue theory (ICFT) has been developed, based on the physical strain decomposition rule that recognizes the role of each deformation mechanism, and thus relate damage accumulation to its underlying physical mechanism(s). The ICFT formulates the overall damage accumulation as a holistic damage process consisting of nucleation and propagation of surface/subsurface cracks in coalescence with internally distributed damage/discontinuities. These guiding principles run through both isothermal low cycle fatigue (LCF) and thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) under general conditions. This paper presents a methodology using mechanism-based constitutive equations to describe the cyclic stress–strain curve and the nonlinear damage accumulation equation incorporating (i) rate-independent plasticity-induced fatigue, (ii) intergranular embrittlement (IE), (iii) creep, and (iv) oxidation to predict LCF and TMF lives of ductile cast iron (DCI). The complication of the mechanisms and their interactions in this material provide a good demonstration case for the model, which is in good agreement with the experimental observations.