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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Coal, Biomass, and Alternative Fuels

Part Load Performance and Operating Strategies of a Natural Gas—Biomass Dual Fueled Microturbine for Combined Heat and Power Generation

[+] Author and Article Information
Sergio Mario Camporeale

Dipartimento di Meccanica,
Matematica e Management—DMMM,
Politecnico di Bari,
Via Re David, 200,
Bari 70125, Italy
e-mail: sergio.camporeale@poliba.it

Bernardo Fortunato

Dipartimento di Meccanica,
Matematica e Management—DMMM,
Politecnico di Bari,
Via Re David, 200,
Bari 70125, Italy
e-mail: bernardo.fortunato@poliba.it

Marco Torresi

Dipartimento di Meccanica,
Matematica e Management—DMMM,
Politecnico di Bari,
Via Re David, 200,
Bari 70125, Italy
e-mail: marco.torresi@poliba.it

Flavia Turi

Dipartimento di Meccanica,
Matematica e Management—DMMM,
Politecnico di Bari,
Via Re David, 200,
Bari 70125, Italy
e-mail: flaviaturi@gmail.com

Antonio Marco Pantaleo

Dipartimento DISAAT,
Università degli Studi di Bari,
Via Amendola 165/A,
70125 Bari, Italy
e-mail: antonio.pantaleo@uniba.it

Achille Pellerano

Dipartimento DISAAT,
Università degli Studi di Bari,
Via Amendola 165/A,
70125 Bari, Italy
e-mail: achille.pellerano@uniba.it

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Coal, Biomass and Alternate Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received July 25, 2014; final manuscript received April 15, 2015; published online June 2, 2015. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 137(12), 121401 (Jun 02, 2015) (13 pages) Paper No: GTP-14-1438; doi: 10.1115/1.4030499 History: Received July 25, 2014

The focus of this paper is on the part load performance of a small scale (100 kWe) combined heat and power (CHP) plant fired by natural gas (NG) and solid biomass to serve a residential energy demand. The plant is based on a modified regenerative microgas turbine (MGT), where compressed air exiting from recuperator is externally heated by the hot gases produced in a biomass furnace; then the air is conveyed to combustion chamber where a conventional internal combustion with NG takes place, reaching the maximum cycle temperature allowed by the turbine blades. The hot gas expands in the turbine and then feeds the recuperator, while the biomass combustion flue gases are used for preheating the combustion air that feeds the furnace. The part load efficiency is examined considering a single shaft layout of the gas turbine and variable speed regulation. In this layout, the turbine shaft is connected to a high speed electric generator and a frequency converter is used to adjust the frequency of the produced electric power. The results show that the variable rotational speed operation allows high the part load efficiency, mainly due to maximum cycle temperature that can be kept about constant. Different biomass/NG energy input ratios are also modeled, in order to assess the trade-offs between: (i) lower energy conversion efficiency and higher investment cost when increasing the biomass input rate and (ii) higher primary energy savings (PESs) and revenues from feed-in tariff available for biomass electricity fed into the grid. The strategies of baseload (BL), heat driven (HD), and electricity driven (ED) plant operation are compared, for an aggregate of residential end-users in cold, average, and mild climate conditions.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Scheme of a single shaft microturbine for CHP generation

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Fig. 2

Dual fuel NG and biomass fired cycle, screenshot from gate cycle® (case study B). In case C (biomass fired EFGT cycle), there is no NG combustion chamber.

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Fig. 3

T–S diagram of the dual fuel EFGT plant

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Fig. 4

Compressor map and running line of the regenerative internally fired MGT (scheme A). Number close to the constant speed lines represent the nondimensional speed, referred to the design point.

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Fig. 5

Performance of the internally fired MGT fueled by NG (scheme A). Exp.: results from Ref. [51]. Sanaye et al.: results from Ref. [7].

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Fig. 6

Performance of the dual fuel EFGT (scheme B)

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Fig. 7

Performance of the EFGT fueled by biomass only (scheme C)

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Fig. 8

Electricity (top) and thermal (bottom) daily demand pattern for different seasons, average electricity intensity scenario

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Fig. 9

Annual CHP efficiency ( ηCHP) for the case studies A (100% NG), B (50% biom, 50% NG), and C (100% biom) and different load/CHP thermal ratio (220, 100, and 50 dwellings served, respectively). CHP operating range is assumed 25–100% of rated electric power. Operating strategies: BL, HD, and ED; and the cold, average, and mild climate conditions are compared.

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Fig. 10

IRR (%) of the investments (including 100 kWe CHP plant and back-up boilers) for the case studies A–C, different load/CHP thermal power ratios, operating strategies BL, HD, ED and only thermal energy (b), NG boiler for case A and biomass boiler for cases B and C; the cold, average and mild climate conditions are compared

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Fig. 11

NPV (kEur) of the investments (including 100 kWe CHP plant and back-up boilers) for the case studies A–C, different load/CHP thermal power ratios, operating strategies BL, HD, ED and only thermal energy (b), NG boiler for case A and biomass boiler for cases B and C; the cold, average and mild climate conditions are compared

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Fig. 12

PES, MWh/yr (upper row) and FPES, MWh/yr (bottom row) for the case studies A–C, load/CHP thermal ratio of 6.5, CHP operating range 25–100% of rated electric power, BL, HD, and ED operating strategies, cold, average, and mild climate conditions

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