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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Lean HCCI/Rich SACI Gasoline Combustion Cycling and Three-Way Catalyst for Fuel Efficiency and NOx Reduction

[+] Author and Article Information
Yi Chen

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Michigan,
Ann Arbor, MI 48105
e-mail: davidsky@umich.edu

Vojtěch Šíma

Ricardo Prague,
Prague 8,
Karlin 18600, Czech Republic

Weiyang Lin

Cummins, Inc.,
Columbus, IN 47201

Jeff Sterniak

Robert Bosch LLC,
Farmington Hills, MI 48331

Stanislav.V Bohac

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Michigan,
Ann Arbor, MI 48105

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received June 8, 2015; final manuscript received June 24, 2015; published online July 21, 2015. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 137(12), 121508 (Jul 21, 2015) (7 pages) Paper No: GTP-15-1200; doi: 10.1115/1.4030969 History: Received June 08, 2015

Multimode combustion (MMC) concepts using homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) gasoline combustion at low loads and spark assisted compression ignition (SACI) gasoline combustion at medium loads have the potential for improved fuel efficiency relative to spark ignition (SI) gasoline combustion. Two MMC concepts are compared in this paper with respect to fuel efficiency and tailpipe NOx emissions. The first concept uses stoichiometric HCCI and SACI to allow standard three-way catalyst (TWC) operation. The second concept also uses HCCI and SACI, but cycles between lean and rich combustion and uses a TWC with increased oxygen storage capacity (OSC) for potentially even greater fuel efficiency improvement. This paper performs a preliminary comparison of the two MMC concepts by analyzing two scenarios: (1) cycling between stoichiometric HCCI at 2 bar BMEP (brake mean effective pressure) and stoichiometric SACI at 3 bar BMEP, and (2) cycling between lean HCCI at 2 bar BMEP and rich SACI at 3 bar BMEP. The effects of excess oxygen ratio during HCCI operation and the frequency of oxygen depletion events on TWC performance and fuel efficiency are investigated. Results show that MMC lean/rich cycling can achieve better fuel efficiency than stoichiometric HCCI/SACI cycling. NOx emissions are moderately higher, but may still be low enough to meet current and future emission regulations.

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References

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Figures

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Fig. 1

NOx reduction on TWC during lean/rich cycling

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Fig. 2

NOx concentrations at engine-out and TWC-out locations during a representative SACI (λ = 0.98)–HCCI (λ = 1.34)–SACI (λ = 0.90) cycle

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Fig. 3

Excess air ratio (λ) at engine-out and TWC-out locations during a representative SACI (λ = 0.98)–HCCI (λ = 1.34)–SACI (λ = 0.90) cycle

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Fig. 4

Time to saturate TWC oxygen storage under each lean HCCI operating conditions

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Fig. 5

Stored oxygen on TWC during each lean HCCI operating conditions

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Fig. 6

Time to deplete stored oxygen in TWC using SACI operation with λ = 0.90 under each lean HCCI operating condition

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Fig. 7

Fuel penalties to remove stored oxygen, relative to stoichiometric SACI baseline under each lean HCCI operating condition

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Fig. 8

Fuel efficiency benefits of MMC concept with lean HCCI/rich SACI relative to stoichiometric HCCI/SACI baseline

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Fig. 9

Fuel efficiency benefits of MMC concept with lean HCCI/rich SACI relative to stoichiometric SI baseline

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Fig. 10

Fuel efficiency benefit versus NOx emissions for continuous stoichiometric HCCI/SACI operation, continuous HCCI (λ = 1.34), and lean/rich cycling (λ = 1.34/0.90)

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Fig. 11

Fuel efficiency benefit versus NOx emissions for continuous stoichiometric HCCI/SACI operation, continuous HCCI (λ = 1.06), and lean/rich cycling (λ = 1.06/0.90)

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