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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Cycle Innovations

Design Space Exploration and Optimization of Conceptual Rotorcraft Powerplants

[+] Author and Article Information
Fakhre Ali

Propulsion Engineering Centre,
School of Aerospace,
Transport and Manufacturing,
Cranfield University,
Bedfordshire MK430AL, UK
e-mail: f.ali@cranfield.ac.uk

Konstantinos Tzanidakis

Propulsion Engineering Centre,
School of Aerospace,
Transport and Manufacturing,
Cranfield University,
Bedfordshire MK430AL, UK
e-mail: k.tzanidakis@cranfield.ac.uk

Ioannis Goulos

Propulsion Engineering Centre,
School of Aerospace,
Transport and Manufacturing,
Cranfield University,
Bedfordshire MK430AL, UK
e-mail: i.goulos@cranfield.ac.uk

Vassilios Pachidis

Propulsion Engineering Centre,
School of Aerospace,
Transport and Manufacturing,
Cranfield University,
Bedfordshire MK430AL, UK
e-mail: v.pachidis@cranfield.ac.uk

Roberto d'Ippolito

NOESIS Solutions,
Gaston Geenslaan, 11,
B4, Leuven 3001, Belgium
e-mail: roberto.dippolito@noesissolutions.com

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Cycle Innovations Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received July 13, 2015; final manuscript received July 15, 2015; published online August 4, 2015. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 137(12), 121701 (Aug 04, 2015) (13 pages) Paper No: GTP-15-1264; doi: 10.1115/1.4031113 History: Received July 13, 2015

This paper demonstrates the application of an integrated rotorcraft multidisciplinary design and optimization framework, deployed for the purpose of preliminary design and assessment of optimum regenerative powerplant configurations for rotorcraft. The proposed approach comprises a wide range of individual modeling theories applicable to rotorcraft flight dynamics, gas turbine engine performance, and weight estimation as well as a novel physics-based stirred reactor model, for the rapid estimation of various gas turbine gaseous emissions. A single-objective particle swarm optimizer (sPSO) is coupled with the aforementioned rotorcraft multidisciplinary design framework. The overall methodology is deployed for the design space exploration and optimization of a reference multipurpose twin engine light (TEL) civil rotorcraft, modeled after the Bo105 helicopter, employing two Rolls Royce Allison 250-C20B turboshaft engines. Through the implementation of single-objective optimization, notionally based optimum regenerative engine design configurations are acquired in terms of engine weight, mission fuel burn, and mission gaseous emissions inventory, at constant technology level. The acquired optimum engine configurations are subsequently deployed for the design of conceptual regenerative rotorcraft configurations, targeting improved mission fuel economy, enhanced payload-range capability as well as improvements in the rotorcraft overall environmental footprint, while maintaining the required airworthiness requirements. The proposed approach essentially constitutes an enabler in terms of focusing the multidisciplinary design of conceptual rotorcraft powerplants to realistic, three-dimensional operations and toward the realization of their associated engine design trade-offs at mission level.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Architecture of integrated rotorcraft multidisciplinary design and optimization framework; design and analysis of conceptual rotorcraft powerplant configurations

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Fig. 2

Schematic layout of a two-shaft regenerated turboshaft

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Fig. 3

Fixed geometry tubular type heat exchanger specific weight correlation adopted from Ref. [25] integrated in HECTOR

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Fig. 4

The analysis methodology scheme for preliminary turboshaft engine dry weight estimation

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Fig. 5

(a) Engine dry weight RSM; engine mass flow and TET; (b) engine dry weight RSM; engine mass flow and OPR, and (c) engine dry weight RSM prediction; relative error for the test engines

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Fig. 6

(a) Reference PATM geographical definition, and (b) time variations of deployed operational airspeed and altitude

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Fig. 7

(a) Sensitivity analysis for various engine and mission output parameters against engine OPR, and (b) sensitivity analysis for various engine and mission output parameters against HEE

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Fig. 8

(a) RSM for engine SFC versus engine LPC and HPC, and (b) RSM for mission NOx versus engine LPC and HPC

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Fig. 9

(a) RSM for engine SFC versus engine HPC and HEE, and (b) RSM for mission NOx versus engine HPC and HEE

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Fig. 10

RSM for Δengine dry weight versus engine DP mass flow and HEE

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Fig. 11

Comparison between the optimized engine design cycle parameters; single-objective optimization results TEL Bo105 helicopter, passenger Air Taxi Mission

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Fig. 12

Single-objective results; mission level parameters and deltas; Bo105 helicopter/passenger mission

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Fig. 13

(a) Fuel flow and (b) NOx emissions production rate; comparison between baseline and optimally designed engine configurations, reference Bo105/passenger mission

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