0
Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Turbomachinery

A Low-Order Model for Predicting Turbocharger Turbine Unsteady Performance

[+] Author and Article Information
Teng Cao

Whittle Laboratory,
University of Cambridge,
Cambridge CB3 0DY, UK
e-mail: tc367@cam.ac.uk

Liping Xu

Whittle Laboratory,
University of Cambridge,
Cambridge CB3 0DY, UK

Contributed by the Turbomachinery Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received October 25, 2015; final manuscript received November 29, 2015; published online February 17, 2016. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 138(7), 072607 (Feb 17, 2016) (11 pages) Paper No: GTP-15-1522; doi: 10.1115/1.4032341 History: Received October 25, 2015; Revised November 29, 2015

In this paper, a low-order model for predicting performance of radial turbocharger turbines is presented. The model combines an unsteady quasi-three-dimensional (Q3D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method with multiple one-dimensional (1D) meanline impeller solvers. The new model preserves the critical volute geometry features, which is crucial for the accurate prediction of the wave dynamics and retains effects of the rotor inlet circumferential nonuniformity. It also still maintains the desirable properties of being easy to set-up and fast to run. The model has been validated against a experimentally validated full 3D unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (URANS) solver. The loss model in the meanline model is calibrated by the full 3D RANS solver under the steady flow states. The unsteady turbine performance under different inlet pulsating flow conditions predicted by the model was compared with the results of the full 3D URANS solver. Good agreement between the two was obtained with a speed-up ratio of about 4 orders of magnitude (∼104) for the low-order model. The low-order model was then used to investigate the effect of different pulse wave amplitudes and frequencies on the turbine cycle averaged performance. For the cases tested, it was found that compared with quasi-steady performance, the unsteady effect of the pulsating flow has a relatively small impact on the cycle-averaged turbine power output and the cycle-averaged mass flow capacity, while it has a large influence on the cycle-averaged ideal power output and cycle-averaged efficiency. This is related to the wave dynamics inside the volute, and the detailed mechanisms responsible are discussed in this paper.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2016 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Martinez-Botas, R. , Pesiridis, A. , and Yang, M. , 2011, “ Overview of Boosting Options for Future Downsized Engines,” Sci. China (Technol. Sci.), 54(2), pp. 318–331. [CrossRef]
Watson, N. , and Janota, M. S. , 1982, Turbocharging the Internal Combustion Engine, The Macmillan Press Ltd., London.
Baines, N. , Hajilouy-Benisi, A. , and Yeo, J. , 1994, “ The Pulse Flow Performance and Modelling of Radial Inflow Turbines,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., C484/006, pp. 209–219.
Payri, F. , Benajes, J. , and Reyes, M. , 1996, “ Modelling of Supercharger Turbines in Internal-Combustion Engines,” Int. J. Mech. Sci., 38(8–9), pp. 853–869. [CrossRef]
Chen, H. , and Winterbone, D. , 1990, “ A Method to Predict Performance of Vaneless Radial Turbines Under Steady and Unsteady Flow Conditions,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., C405/008, pp. 13–22.
Chen, H. , Hakeem, I. , and Martinez-Botas, R. F. , 1996, “ Modelling of a Turbocharger Turbine Under Pulsating Inlet Conditions,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part A, 210(51), pp. 397–408. [CrossRef]
Abidat, M. , Hachemi, M. , Hamidou, M. , and Baines, N. , 1998, “ Prediction of the Steady and Non-Steady Flow Performance of a Highly Loaded Mixed Flow Turbine,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part A, 212(3), pp. 173–184. [CrossRef]
Hu, X. , and Lawless, P. B. , 2001, “ A Model for Radial Flow Turbine Performance in Highly Unsteady Flows,” ASME Paper No. 2001-GT-0312.
Costall, A. , Szymko, S. , Martinez-Botas, R. F. , Filsinger, D. , and Ninkovic, D. , 2006, “ Assessment of Unsteady Behavior in Turbocharger Turbines,” ASME Paper No. GT2006-90348.
Costall, A. , McDavid, R. , Martinez-Botas, R. F. , and Baines, N. , 2009, “ Pulse Performance Modelling of a Twin Entry Turbocharger Turbine Under Full and Unequal Admission,” ASME Paper No. GT2009-59406.
Chiong, M. S. , Rajoo, S. , Romagnoli, A. , and Martinez-Botas, R. , 2012, “ Unsteady Performance Prediction of a Single Entry Mixed Flow Turbine Using 1-D Gas Dynamic Code Extended With Meanline Model,” ASME Paper No. GT2012-69176.
Chiong, M. S. , Rajoo, S. , Costall, A. W. , Salim, W. , Romagnoli, A. , and Martinez-Botas, R. F. , 2013, “ Assessment of Cycle Averaged Turbocharger Maps Through One Dimensional and Mean-Line Coupled Codes,” ASME Paper No. GT2013-95906.
Chiong, M. S. , Rajoo, S. , Martinez-Botas, R. F. , and Costall, A. W. , 2012, “ Engine Turbocharger Performance Prediction: One-Dimensional Modeling of a Twin Entry Turbine,” Energy Convers. Manage., 57, pp. 68–78. [CrossRef]
Benson, R. , and Scrimshaw, K. , 1965, “ An Experimental Investigation of Non-Steady Flow in a Radial Gas Turbine,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., 180, pp. 74–85. [CrossRef]
Wallace, F. , and Blair, G. , 1965, “ The Pulsating Flow Performance of Inward Radial Flow Turbines,” ASME Paper No. 65-GTP-21.
Kosuge, H. , Yamanaka, N. , Ariga, I. , and Watanabe, I. , 1976, “ Performance of Radial Flow Turbines Under Pulsating Flow Conditions,” J. Eng. Power, 98(1), pp. 53–59. [CrossRef]
Capobianco, M. , Gambarotta, A. , and Cipolla, G. , 1989, “ Influence of the Pulsating Flow Operation on the Turbine Characteristics of a Small Internal Combustion Engine Turbocharger,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., C372/019, pp. 63–69.
Capobianco, M. , and Gambarotta, A. , 1990, “ Unsteady Flow Performance of Turbocharger Radial Turbines,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., C405/017, pp. 123–132.
Szymko, S. , Martinez-Botas, R. F. , and Pullen, K. R. , 2005, “ Experimental Evaluation of Turbocharger Turbine Performance Under Pulsating Flow Conditions,” ASME Paper No. GT2005-68878.
Rajoo, S. , and Martinez-Botas, R. F. , 2010, “ Unsteady Effect in a Nozzled Turbocharger Turbine,” ASME J. Turbomach., 132, pp. 1–9. [CrossRef]
Copeland, C. , Newton, P. , Martinez-Botas, R. F. , and Seiler, M. , 2012, “ A Comparison of Timescales Within a Pulsed Flow Turbocharger Turbine,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., C1340/068, pp. 389–404.
Pesiridis, A. , Lioutas, S. , and Martinez-Botas, R. F. , 2012, “ Integration of Unsteady Effects in the Turbocharger Design Process,” ASME Paper No. GT2012-69053.
Cao, T. , Xu, L. , Yang, M. , and Martinez-Botas, R. F. , 2014, “ Radial Turbine Rotor Response to Pulsating Inlet Flows,” ASME J. Turbomach., 136(7), p. 071003.
Roe, P. L. , 1982, “ Approximate Riemann Solvers, Parameter Vectors, and Difference Schemes,” J. Comput. Phys., 38, pp. 357–372.
Blazek, J. , 2001, Computational Fluid Dynamics: Principles and Applications, Elsevier Science Ltd., Oxford, UK.
Jameson, A. , 1991, “ Time-Dependent Calculations Using Multigrid With Applications to Unsteady Flows Past Airfoils and Wings,” AIAA Paper No. 91-1596.
Wasserbauer, C. A. , and Glassman, A. J. , 1975, “ Fortran Program for Predicting Off-Design Performance of Radial-Inflow Turbines,” NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH, NASA Technical Note, Report No. NASA TN D-8063.
Whitfield, A. , and Baines, N. C. , 1990, Design of Radial Turbomachines, Longman Scientific & Technical, Harlow, Essex, UK.
Denton, J. D. , 1992, “ The Calculations of Three Dimensional Viscous Flow Through Multistage Turbomachines,” ASME J. Turbomach., 144, pp. 18–26. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Illustrations of the introduced Q3D model

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Volute mesh generated by the Q3D model

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Calibrations of the Q3D model under steady state: (a)mass flow against pressure ratio and (b) efficiency against velocity ratio

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Detailed comparisons of the rotor inlet conditions between the Q3D model and the full 3D CFD: (a) total pressure and (b) absolute flow angle

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Comparisons of the prediction of turbine instantaneous mass flow capacity given by the Q3D model and the full 3D CFD: (a) fr=0.22, (b) fr=0.44, and (c) fr=0.65

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Comparisons of the prediction of turbine instantaneous power output given by the Q3D model and the full 3D CFD: (a) fr=0.22, (b) fr=0.44, and (c) fr=0.65

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Variations of the local pressure corrected Strouhal number of the turbine rotor

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Quasi-steady turbine performance evaluation process

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Comparison of the instantaneous inlet mass flow capacity under pulsating flow (Λ = 0.62) and quasi-steady flow conditions

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Lambda number (Λ) of the studied cases

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Comparison of the cycle-averaged turbine performance under pulsating and quasi-steady flow conditions

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Comparison of the instantaneous rotor efficiency under pulsating flow (Λ = 0.62) and quasi-steady flow conditions

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Breakdown of the contribution of each period to the total efficiency deviation from quasi-steady efficiency

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Breakdown of the time-integrated lost power within the rotor during different unsteady phases

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In