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Research Papers: Internal Combustion Engines

Investigation of Cold Starting and Combustion Mode Switching as Methods to Improve Low Load RCCI Operation

[+] Author and Article Information
Reed Hanson, Rolf Reitz

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Wisconsin-Madison,
Madison, WI 53706

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the IC Engine Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received January 26, 2016; final manuscript received January 27, 2016; published online March 22, 2016. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 138(9), 092802 (Mar 22, 2016) (8 pages) Paper No: GTP-16-1035; doi: 10.1115/1.4032711 History: Received January 26, 2016; Revised January 27, 2016

Reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) is an engine combustion strategy that utilizes in-cylinder fuel blending to produce low NOx and particulate matter (PM) emissions while maintaining high thermal efficiency. The current study investigates RCCI and conventional diesel combustion (CDC) operation in a light-duty multicylinder engine (MCE) using a transient capable engine test cell. The main focus of the work uses engine experiments to investigate methods which can improve low load RCCI operation. The first set of experiments investigated RCCI operation during cold start conditions. The next set of tests investigated combustion mode switching between RCCI and CDC. During the cold start tests, RCCI performance and emissions were measured over a range of engine coolant temperatures (ECTs) from 48 °C to 85 °C. A combination of open- and closed-loop controls enabled RCCI to operate at a 1500 rpm, 1 bar BMEP operating point over this range of coolant temperatures. At a similar operating condition, i.e., 1500 rpm, 2 bar BMEP, the engine was instantaneously switched between CDC and RCCI combustion using the same open- and closed-loop controls as the cold start testing. During the mode switch tests, emissions and performance were measured with high-speed sampling equipment. The tests revealed that it was possible to operate RCCI down to 48 °C with simple open- and closed-loop controls with emissions and efficiency similar to the warm steady-state values. Next, the mode switching tests were successful in switching combustion modes with minimal deviations in emissions and performance in either mode at steady state.

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References

Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic of the test engine

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Fig. 2

Main SOI timing and PFI ratio adjustment table values as a function of ECT

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Fig. 3

Cylinder pressure, AHRR, and DI injector current traces for the cold start test

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Fig. 4

Total fuel flow rate as a function of ECT

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Fig. 5

Emissions and combustion performance for the RCCI cold start test

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Fig. 6

Combustion metrics of the RCCI cold start test

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Fig. 7

Fueling and combustion metrics of the RCCI cold start test

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Fig. 8

Exhaust manifold temperatures and oxidation catalyst efficiency for RCCI and CDC as a function of load

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Fig. 9

Performance results for the RCCI to CDC mode switch test

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Fig. 10

BMEP for the RCCI to CDC mode switch test

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Fig. 11

Combustion performance results for the RCCI to CDC mode switch test

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