0
Research Papers: Internal Combustion Engines

Investigation of Cold Starting and Combustion Mode Switching as Methods to Improve Low Load RCCI Operation

[+] Author and Article Information
Reed Hanson, Rolf Reitz

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Wisconsin-Madison,
Madison, WI 53706

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the IC Engine Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received January 26, 2016; final manuscript received January 27, 2016; published online March 22, 2016. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 138(9), 092802 (Mar 22, 2016) (8 pages) Paper No: GTP-16-1035; doi: 10.1115/1.4032711 History: Received January 26, 2016; Revised January 27, 2016

Reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) is an engine combustion strategy that utilizes in-cylinder fuel blending to produce low NOx and particulate matter (PM) emissions while maintaining high thermal efficiency. The current study investigates RCCI and conventional diesel combustion (CDC) operation in a light-duty multicylinder engine (MCE) using a transient capable engine test cell. The main focus of the work uses engine experiments to investigate methods which can improve low load RCCI operation. The first set of experiments investigated RCCI operation during cold start conditions. The next set of tests investigated combustion mode switching between RCCI and CDC. During the cold start tests, RCCI performance and emissions were measured over a range of engine coolant temperatures (ECTs) from 48 °C to 85 °C. A combination of open- and closed-loop controls enabled RCCI to operate at a 1500 rpm, 1 bar BMEP operating point over this range of coolant temperatures. At a similar operating condition, i.e., 1500 rpm, 2 bar BMEP, the engine was instantaneously switched between CDC and RCCI combustion using the same open- and closed-loop controls as the cold start testing. During the mode switch tests, emissions and performance were measured with high-speed sampling equipment. The tests revealed that it was possible to operate RCCI down to 48 °C with simple open- and closed-loop controls with emissions and efficiency similar to the warm steady-state values. Next, the mode switching tests were successful in switching combustion modes with minimal deviations in emissions and performance in either mode at steady state.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2016 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Turns, S. R. , 2000, An Introduction to Combustion: Concepts and Applications, WCB/McGraw-Hill, Boston.
Kokjohn, S. , Hanson, R. , Splitter, D. , and Reitz, R. , 2010, “ Experiments and Modeling of Dual-Fuel HCCI and PCCI Combustion Using In-Cylinder Fuel Blending,” SAE Int. J. Engines, 2(2), pp. 24–39. [CrossRef]
Hanson, R. , Kokjohn, S. , Splitter, D. , and Reitz, R. , 2010, “ An Experimental Investigation of Fuel Reactivity Controlled PCCI Combustion in a Heavy-Duty Engine,” SAE Int. J. Engines, 3(1), pp. 700–716. [CrossRef]
Splitter, D. A. , Hanson, R. M. , Kokjohn, S. L. , and Reitz, R. D. , 2010, “ Improving Engine Performance by Optimizing Fuel Reactivity With a Dual Fuel PCCI Strategy,” THIESEL 2010 Conference on Thermo- and Fluid Dynamic Processes in Diesel Engines, Valencia, Spain, Sept. 14–17, pp. 1–18.
Splitter, D. , Hanson, R. , Kokjohn, S. , and Reitz, R. , 2011, “ Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Heavy-Duty Engine Operation at Mid- and High-Loads With Conventional and Alternative Fuels,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2011-01-0363.
Hanson, R. , Curran, S. , Wagner, R. , Kokjohn, S. , Splitter, D. , and Reitz, R. D. , 2012, “ Piston Bowl Optimization for RCCI Combustion in a Light-Duty Multi-Cylinder Engine,” SAE Int. J. Engines, 5(2), pp. 286–299. [CrossRef]
Hanson, R. , and Reitz, R. , 2013, “ Transient RCCI Operation in a Light-Duty Multi-Cylinder Engine,” SAE Int. J. Engines, 6(3), pp. 1694–1705. [CrossRef]
Curran, S. , Hanson, R. , Wagner, R. , and Reitz, R. , 2013, “ Efficiency and Emissions Mapping of RCCI in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2013-01-0289.
Webb, C. , Weber, P. , and Thornton, M. , 2004, “ Achieving Tier 2 Bin 5 Emission Levels With a Medium Duty Diesel Pick-Up and a NOx Adsorber, Diesel Particulate Filter Emissions System-Exhaust Gas Temperature Management,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2004-01-0584.
Zhong, L. , Gruenewald, S. , Henein, N. , and Bryzik, W. , 2007, “ Lower Temperature Limits for Cold Starting of Diesel Engine With a Common Rail Fuel Injection System,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2007-01-0934.
Pacaud, P. , Perrin, H. , and Laget, O. , 2009, “ Cold Start on Diesel Engine: Is Low Compression Ratio Compatible With Cold Start Requirements?,” SAE Int. J. Engines, 1(1), pp. 831–849. [CrossRef]
MacMillan, D. , La Rocca, A. , Shayler, P. , Morris, T. , Murphy, M. , and Pegg, I. , 2009, “ Investigating the Effects of Multiple Pilot Injections on Stability at Cold Idle for a DI Diesel Engine,” SAE Int. J. Engines, 2(1), pp. 370–380. [CrossRef]
Anderson, J. , Rask, E. , Lohse-Busch, H. , and Miers, S. , 2014, “ A Comparison of Cold-Start Behavior and Its Impact on Fuel Economy for Advanced Technology Vehicles,” SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr., 7(2), pp. 427–435. [CrossRef]
Nely, G. , Mehta, D. , and Sarlashkar, J. , 2014, “ Diesel Cold-Start Emission Control Research for 2015-2025 LEV III Emissions—Part 2,” SAE Int. J. Engines, 7(3), pp. 1302–1310. [CrossRef]
Glewen, W. , 2012, “ Experimental Investigation of Transient Operation and Low Temperature Combustion in a Light Duty Diesel Engine,” Ph.D. thesis, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI.
Barath, A. , Kalva, N. , Reitz, R. , and Rutland, C. , 2014, “ Use of Early exhaust Valve Opening to Improve Combustion Efficiency and Catalyst Effectiveness in a Multi-Cylinder RCCI Engine System: A Simulation Study,” ASME Paper No. ICEF2014-5534.
Yang, X. , 2011, “ Modeling Control of SI and SI-HCCI Hybrid Combustion Engines,” Ph.D. thesis, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI.
Burton, J. L. , 2008, “ Investigation of Transient Emissions and Mixed Mode Combustion for a Light Duty Diesel Engine,” M.S. thesis, Engine Research Center, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI.
Prikhodko, V. , Curran, S. , Parks, J. , and Wagner, R. , 2013, “ Effectiveness of Diesel Oxidation Catalyst in Reducing HC and CO Emissions From Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition,” SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr., 6(2), pp. 329–335. [CrossRef]
Reitz, R. D. , Kokjohn, S. L. , Hanson, R. M. , and Splitter, D. A. , 2010, “ Engine Combustion Control Via Fuel Reactivity Stratification,” U.S. Patent No. 20,110,192,367.
Williams, D. R. , 2008, “ Transient Effect of Speed and Load on Low Temperature Diesel Combustion,” M.S. thesis, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI.
Lapuerta, M. , Martos, F. J. , and Cardenas, M. D. , 2005, “ Determination of Light Extinction Efficiency of Diesel Soot From Smoke Opacity Measurements,” Meas. Sci. Technol., 16(10), pp. 2048–2055. [CrossRef]
AVL, 2001, Smoke Measurement, AVL List GmbH, Graz, Austria.
Prikhodko, V. , Curran, S. , Barone, T. , Lewis, S. , Storey, J. M. , Cho, K. , Wagner, R. M. , and Parks, J. E. , 2010, “ Emission Characteristics of a Diesel Engine Operating With In-Cylinder Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Blending,” SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr., 3(2), pp. 946–955. [CrossRef]
Hanson, R. M. , 2014, “ Experimental Investigation of Transient RCCI in a Light Duty Diesel Engine,” Ph.D. thesis, Engine Research Center, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI.
Kokjohn, S. L. , 2012, “ Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Combustion,” Ph.D. thesis, Engine Research Center, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Main SOI timing and PFI ratio adjustment table values as a function of ECT

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Cylinder pressure, AHRR, and DI injector current traces for the cold start test

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic of the test engine

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Total fuel flow rate as a function of ECT

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Emissions and combustion performance for the RCCI cold start test

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Combustion metrics of the RCCI cold start test

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Fueling and combustion metrics of the RCCI cold start test

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Exhaust manifold temperatures and oxidation catalyst efficiency for RCCI and CDC as a function of load

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Performance results for the RCCI to CDC mode switch test

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

BMEP for the RCCI to CDC mode switch test

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Combustion performance results for the RCCI to CDC mode switch test

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In