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Research Papers: Internal Combustion Engines

Application of Dynamic ϕ–T Map: Analysis on a Natural Gas/Diesel Fueled RCCI Engine

[+] Author and Article Information
Jing Li

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Faculty of Engineering,
National University of Singapore,
Singapore 117575, Singapore
e-mail: lijing@u.nus.edu

Wenming Yang

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Faculty of Engineering,
National University of Singapore,
Singapore 117575, Singapore
e-mail: mpeywm@nus.edu.sg

Hui An

Engineering Cluster,
Singapore Institute of Technology,
Singapore 138683, Singapore
e-mail: Hui.An@SingaporeTech.edu.sg

Dezhi Zhou

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Faculty of Engineering,
National University of Singapore,
Singapore 117575, Singapore
e-mail: dezhizhou@nus.edu.sg

Markus Kraft

Cambridge CARES C4T,
SCBE,
62 Nanyang Drive, NTU,
Singapore 637459, Singapore
e-mail: mk306@cam.ac.uk

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the IC Engine Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received January 27, 2016; final manuscript received January 28, 2016; published online March 22, 2016. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 138(9), 092803 (Mar 22, 2016) (10 pages) Paper No: GTP-16-1037; doi: 10.1115/1.4032712 History: Received January 27, 2016; Revised January 28, 2016

In this study, dynamic ϕ–T map analysis was applied to a reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) engine fueled with natural gas (NG) and diesel. The combustion process of the engine was simulated by coupled kiva4-chemkin with a diesel oil surrogate (DOS) chemical mechanism. The ϕ–T maps were constructed by the mole fractions of soot and NO obtained from senkin and ϕ–T conditions from engine simulations. Five parameters, namely, NG fraction, first start of injection (SOI) timing, second SOI timing, second injection duration, and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rate, were varied in certain ranges individually, and the ϕ–T maps were compared and analyzed under various conditions. The results revealed how the five parameters would shift the ϕ–T conditions and influence the soot–NO contour. Among the factors, EGR rate could limit the highest temperature due to its dilute effect, hence maintaining RCCI combustion within low-temperature combustion (LTC) region. The second significant parameter is the premixed NG fraction. It could set the lowest temperature; moreover, the tendency of soot formation can be mitigated due to the lessened fuel impingement and the absence of C–C bond. Finally, the region of RCCI combustion was added to the commonly known ϕ–T map diagram.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Illustration on the regions of CDC, HCCI, and PCCI on a ϕ–T map with soot–NOx contour

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Fig. 2

Sector meshes of the two engines for validations at top dead center

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Fig. 3

Comparisons on in-cylinder pressure and heat release rate: (a) validation 1—Toyota 2KD-FTV, (b) validation 2—Toyota 2KD-FTV, and (c) validation 3—OM-355

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Fig. 4

Φ–T maps for the cases with (a) 20% (case 1), (b) 50% (base case), and (c) 80% (case 2) NG at 10 deg ATDC

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Fig. 5

Three-dimensional contours of ER for the cases with 20% NG at 10 deg ATDC

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Fig. 6

Mass fraction comparison in ER groups at 10 deg ATDC with different NG fractions

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Fig. 7

Φ–T maps for the cases with first SOI timing of (a) −100 (case 3), (b) −80 (base case), and (c) −60 (case 4) at −10 deg ATDC

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Fig. 8

Mass fraction comparison in ER groups at −10 deg ATDC with different first SOI timings

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Fig. 9

Fuel impingement of the cases with different first SOI timings: (a) −100 at −60 deg crank angle ATDC and (b) −60 at −20 deg crank angle ATDC

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Fig. 10

Φ–T maps for the cases with second SOI timing of (a) −30 (case 5), (b) −20 (base case), and (c) −10 (case 6) at 10 deg ATDC

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Fig. 11

Mass fraction comparison in ER groups at 10 deg ATDC with different second SOI timings

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Fig. 12

Φ–T maps for the cases with second ID of (a) 5 (base case), (b) 10 (case 7), and (c) 15 (case 8) deg at 10 deg ATDC

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Fig. 13

Mass fraction comparison in ER groups at 10 deg ATDC with different second injection durations

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Fig. 14

Three-dimensional contours of ER of the cases with injection durations of (a) 5 deg (base case), (b) 10 deg (case 7), and (c) 15 deg (case 8)

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Fig. 15

Φ–T maps for the cases with EGR rate of (a) 0% (base case), (b) 30% (case 9), and (c) 60% (case 10) at 10 deg ATDC

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Fig. 16

Mass fraction comparison in ER groups at 10 deg ATDC with different EGR rates

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Fig. 17

Region for RCCI combustion on a ϕ–T map

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