0
Research Papers: Internal Combustion Engines

An Evaluation of Combustion and Emissions Performance With Low Cetane Naphtha Fuels in a Multicylinder Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

[+] Author and Article Information
Yu Zhang

Aramco Research Center-Detroit,
Aramco Services Company,
46535 Peary Ct.,
Novi, MI 48374
e-mail: yu.zhang@aramcoservices.com

Alexander Voice

Aramco Research Center-Detroit,
Aramco Services Company,
46535 Peary Ct.,
Novi, MI 48374
e-mail: alexander.voice@aramcoservices.com

Tom Tzanetakis

Aramco Research Center-Detroit,
Aramco Services Company,
46535 Peary Ct.,
Novi, MI 48374
e-mail: tom.tzanetakis@aramcoservices.com

Michael Traver

Aramco Research Center-Detroit,
Aramco Services Company,
46535 Peary Ct.,
Novi, MI 48374
e-mail: michael.traver@aramcoservices.com

David Cleary

Aramco Research Center-Detroit,
Aramco Services Company,
46535 Peary Ct.,
Novi, MI 48374
e-mail: david.cleary@aramcoservices.com

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the IC Engine Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received January 27, 2016; final manuscript received January 31, 2016; published online April 12, 2016. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 138(10), 102805 (Apr 12, 2016) (10 pages) Paper No: GTP-16-1042; doi: 10.1115/1.4032879 History: Received January 27, 2016; Revised January 31, 2016

Future projections in global transportation fuel use show a demand shift toward diesel and away from gasoline. At the same time, greenhouse gas regulations will drive higher vehicle fuel efficiency and lower well-to-wheel CO2 production. Naphtha, a contributor to the gasoline stream and requiring less processing at the refinery level, is an attractive candidate to mitigate this demand shift while lowering the overall greenhouse gas impact. This study investigates the combustion and emissions performance of two naphtha fuels (Naphtha 1: RON59 and Naphtha 2: RON69) and one ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) in a model year (MY) 2013, six-cylinder, heavy-duty diesel engine. Engine testing was focused on the heavy-duty supplemental emissions test (SET) “B” speed over a load sweep from 5 to 15 bar BMEP (brake-specific mean pressure). At each operating point, NOx sweeps were conducted over wide ranges. At 10–15 bar BMEP, mixing-controlled combustion dominates the engine combustion process. Under a compression ratio of 18.9, cylinder pressure and temperature at these load conditions are sufficiently high to suppress the reactivity difference between ULSD and the two naphtha fuels. As a result, the three test fuels showed similar ignition delay (ID). Nevertheless, naphtha fuels still exhibited notable soot reduction compared to ULSD. Under mixing-controlled combustion, this is likely due to their lower aromatic content and higher volatility. At 10 bar BMEP, Naphtha 1 generated less soot than Naphtha 2 since it contains less aromatics and is more volatile. When operated at light load, in a less reactive thermal environment, the lower reactivity naphtha fuels lead to longer IDs than ULSD. As a result, the soot benefit of naphtha fuels was enhanced. Utilizing the soot benefit of the naphtha fuels, engine-out NOx was calibrated from the production level of 3–4 g/hp-hr down to 2–2.5 g/hp-hr over the 12 nonidle SET steady-state modes. At this reduced NOx level, naphtha fuels were still able to maintain a soot advantage over ULSD and remain “soot-free” while achieving diesel-equivalent fuel efficiency. Finally, low-temperature combustion (LTC) operation (NOx ≤ 0.2 g/hp-hr and smoke ≤ 0.2 FSN) was achieved with both of the naphtha fuels at 5 bar BMEP through a late injection approach with high injection pressure. Under high exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) dilution, Naphtha 2 showed an appreciably longer ID than Naphtha 1, resulting in a soot reduction benefit.

Copyright © 2016 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Pitz, W. , Cernansky, N. , Dryer, F. , Egolfopoulos, F. , Farrell, J. T. , Friend, D. G. , and Pitsch, H. , 2007, “ Development of an Experimental Database and Chemical Kinetic Models for Surrogate Gasoline Fuels,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2007-01-0175.
Murata, Y. , Kusaka, J. , Odaka, M. , Daisho, Y. , Kawano, D. , Suzuki, H. , Ishii, H. , and Goto, Y. , 2006, “ Achievement of Medium Engine Speed and Load Premixed Diesel Combustion With Variable Valve Timing,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2006-01-0203.
Nevin, R. M. , Sun, Y. , Gonzalez, M. A. , and Reitz, R. D. , 2007, “ PCCI Investigation Using Variable Intake Valve Closing in a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2007-01-0903.
De Ojeda, W. , 2010, “ Effect of Variable Valve Timing on Diesel Combustion Characteristics,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2010-02-1124.
Inagaki, K. , Mizuta, J. , Fuyuto, T. , Hashizume, T. , Ito, H. , Kuzuyanna, H. , Kawae, T. , and Kono, M. , 2011, “ Low Emissions and High-Efficiency Diesel Combustion Using Highly Dispersed Spray With Restricted In-Cylinder Swirl and Squish Flows,” SAE Paper No. 2011-01-1393.
Kalghatgi, G. , Risberg, P. , and Ångström, H. , 2006, “ Advantages of Fuels With High Resistance to Auto-Ignition in Late-Injection, Low-Temperature, Compression Ignition Combustion,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2006-01-3385.
Kalghatgi, G. , Risberg, P. , and Ångström, H. , 2007, “ Partially Pre-Mixed Auto-Ignition of Gasoline to Attain Low Smoke and Low NOx at High Load in a Compression Ignition Engine and Comparison With a Diesel Fuel,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2007-01-0006.
Kalghatgi, G. , Hildingsson, L. , and Johansson, B. , 2009, “ Low NOx and Low Smoke Operation of a Diesel Engine Using Gasoline-Like Fuels,” ASME J. Gas Turbines Power, 132(9), p. 092803.
Manente, V. , Johansson, B. , and Tunestal, P. , 2009, “ Partially Premixed Combustion at High Load Using Gasoline and Ethanol: A Comparison With Diesel,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2009-01-0944.
Borgqvist, P. , Tunestal, P. , and Johansson, B. , 2013, “ Comparison of Negative Valve Overlap (NVO) and Rebreathing Valve Strategies on a Gasoline PPC Engine at Low Load and Idle Operating Conditions,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2013-01-0902.
Kolodziej, C. , Kodavasa, J. , Ciatti, S. , Som, S. , Shidore, N. , and Delhom, J. , 2013, “ Achieving Stable Engine Operation of Gasoline Compression Ignition Using 87 AKI Gasoline Down to Idle,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2013-01-0902.
Won., H. , Peters, N. , Pitsch, H. , Tait, N. , and Kalghatgi, G. , 2013, “ Partially Premixed Combustion of Gasoline Type Fuels Using Larger Size Nozzle and Higher Compression Ratio in a Diesel Engine,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2013-01-2539.
Manente, V. , Zander, C. , Johansson, B. , Tunestal., P. , and Cannella, W. , 2010, “ An Advanced Internal Combustion Engine Concept for Low Emissions and High Efficiency From Idle to Max Load Using Gasoline Partially Premixed Combustion,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2010-01-2198.
Akihama, K. , Kosaka, H. , Hotta, Y. , Nishikawa, K. , Inagaki, K. , Fuyuto, T. , Iwashita, Y. , Farrell, J. T. , and Weissman, W. , 2009, “ An Investigation of High Load (Compression Ignition Operation of the ‘Naphtha Engine’—A Combustion Strategy for Low Well-to-Wheel CO2 Emissions,” SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr., 1(1), pp. 920–932. [CrossRef]
Rose, K. , Cracknell, R. , Rickeard, D. , Ariztegui, J. , Cannella, W. , Elliott, N. , Hamje, H. , Muether, M. , Schnorbus, T. , Kolbeck, A. , and Lamping, M. , 2010, “ Impact of Fuel Properties on Advanced Combustion Performance in a Diesel Bench Engine and Demonstrator Vehicle,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2010-01-0334.
Chang, J. , Kalghatgi, G. , Amer, A. , and Viollet, Y. , 2012, “ Enabling High Efficiency Direct Injection Engine With Naphtha Fuel Through Partially Premixed Charge Compression Ignition Combustion,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2012-01-0677.
Chang, J. , Kalghatgi, G. , Amer, A. , Adomeit, P. , Rohs, H. , and Viollet, Y. , 2013, “ Vehicle Demonstration of Naphtha Fuel Achieving Both High Efficiency and Drivability With EURO6 Engine-Out NOx Emission,” SAE Int. J. Engines, 6(1), pp. 101–119. [CrossRef]
Leermakers, C. , Bakker, P. , Somers, L. , De Goey, L. , and Johansson, B. , 2013, “ Commercial Naphtha Blends for Partially Premixed Combustion,” SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr., 6(1), pp. 199–216. [CrossRef]
Viollet, Y. , Chang, J. , and Kalghatgi, G. , 2014, “ Compression Ratio and Derived Cetane Number Effects on Gasoline Compression Ignition Engine Running With Naphtha Fuels,” SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr., 7(2), pp. 412–426. [CrossRef]
OPEC, 2014, “ 2014 World Oil Outlook,” Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), Vienna, Austria.
Ractcliff, M. , McCormick, R. , and Taylor, J. , 2004, “ Compendium of Experimental Cetane Numbers,” Report No. NREL/SR-540-36805.
Westbrook, C. , 2000, “ Chemical Kinetics of Hydrocarbon Ignition in Practical Combustion Systems,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 28(2), pp. 1563–1577. [CrossRef]
Fieweger, K. , Blumenthal, R. , and Adomeit, G. , 1997, “ Self-Ignition of S.I. Engine Model Fuels: A Shock Tube Investigation at High Pressure,” Combust. Flame, 109(4), pp. 599–619. [CrossRef]
Mehl., M. , Pitz, W. , Westbrook, C. , and Curran, H. , 2011, “ Kinetic Modeling of Gasoline Surrogate Components and Mixtures Under Engine Conditions,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 33(1), pp. 193–200. [CrossRef]
Minetti, R. , Carlier, M. , Ribaucour, M. , Therssen, E. , and Sochet, L. , 1995, “ A Rapid Compression Machine Investigation of Oxidation and Auto-Ignition of n-Heptane, Measurements and Modeling,” Combust. Flame, 102(3), pp. 298–309. [CrossRef]
Ciezki, H. , and Adomeit, G. , 1993, “ Shock-Tube Investigation of Self-Ignition of n-Heptane–Air Mixtures Under Engine Relevant Conditions,” Combust. Flame, 93(4), pp. 421–433. [CrossRef]
Genzale, C. L. , Pickett, L. M. , and Kook, S. , 2010, “ Liquid Penetration of Diesel and Biodiesel Sprays at Late-Cycle Post-Injection Conditions,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2010-01-0610.
Chang, C. T. , and Farrell, P. V. , 1997, “ A Study on the Effects of Fuel Viscosity and Nozzle Geometry on High Injection Pressure Diesel Spray Characteristics,” SAE Technical Paper No. 970353.
Dernotte, J. , Hespel, C. , Houillé, S. , Foucher, F. , and Mounaïm-Rousselle, C. , 2012, “ Influence of Fuel Properties on the Diesel Injection Process in Nonvaporizing Conditions,” Atomization Sprays, 22(6) pp. 461–492. [CrossRef]
Eismark, J. , Balthasar, M. , Karlsson, A. , Benham, T. , Christensen, M. , and Denbratt, I. , 2009, “ Role of Late Soot Oxidation for Low Emission Combustion in a Diffusion-Controlled, High-EGR, Heavy Duty Diesel Engine,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2009-01-2813.
Hotta, Y. , Inayoshi, M. , Nakakita, K. , Fujiwara, K. , and Sakata, I. , 2005, “ Achieving Lower Exhaust Emissions and Better Performance in an HSDI Diesel Engine With Multiple Injection,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2005-01-0928.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Engine air system schematic

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Engine emissions, performance, and air system boundary conditions for ULSD and naphtha fuels over an NOx sweep at 10 bar BMEP

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Cylinder pressure and heat release rate for ULSD andnaphtha fuels at 10 bar BMEP and an engine-out NOx of 1 g/hp-hr

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Combustion parameters of ULSD and naphtha fuels over a NOx sweep at 10 bar BMEP

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Engine emissions, performance, and air system boundary conditions for ULSD and naphtha fuels over a NOx sweep at 15 bar BMEP

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Cylinder pressure and heat release rate for ULSD andnaphtha fuels at 15 bar BMEP and an engine-out NOx of 1 g/hp-hr

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Engine emissions for ULSD and naphtha fuels over a NOx sweep at 5 bar BMEP

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Cylinder pressure and heat release rate for ULSD and naphtha fuels at 5 bar BMEP and an engine-out NOx of 2 g/hp-hr

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Combustion parameters of ULSD and naphtha fuels over a NOx sweep at 5 bar BMEP

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Engine performance and air system boundary conditions for ULSD and naphtha fuels over a NOx sweep at 5 bar BMEP

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Engine performance and air system boundary conditions for Naphtha 1 over a NOx sweep under injection pressures of 1000, 1300, and 1600 bar at 5 bar BMEP

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Engine emissions for Naphtha 1 over a NOx sweep under injection pressures of 1000, 1300, and 1600 bar at 5 bar BMEP

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Cylinder pressure and heat release rate for Naphtha 1 under injection pressures of 1000, 1300, and 1600 bar at 5 bar BMEP and an engine-out NOx of 3 g/hp-hr

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Cylinder pressure and heat release rate for Naphtha 1 under injection pressures of 1000, 1300, and 1600 bar at 5 bar BMEP and an engine-out NOx of 0.2 g/hp-hr

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Combustion parameters for Naphtha 1 over a NOx sweep under injection pressures of 1000, 1300, and 1600 bar at 5 bar BMEP

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

SET 12-mode engine steady-state emissions and performance for ULSD and naphtha fuels

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

Engine emissions for naphtha fuels over an SOI sweep at 5 bar BMEP and an engine-out NOx of 0.2 g/hp-hr

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 18

Engine performance and combustion parameters for naphtha fuels over an SOI sweep at 5 bar BMEP and an engine-out NOx of 0.2 g/hp-hr

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 19

Cylinder pressure and heat release rate for Naphtha 1 under SOIs of −15, −5, and 3 deg ATDC at 5 bar BMEP and an engine-out NOx of 0.2 g/hp-hr

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 20

Cylinder pressure and heat release rate for naphtha fuels under SOI of 0 deg ATDC at 5 bar BMEP and an engine-out NOx of 0.2 g/hp-hr

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In