0
Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Cycle Innovations

Étude on Gas Turbine Combined Cycle Power Plant—Next 20 Years

[+] Author and Article Information
S. Can Gülen

Bechtel Power Corporation,
Frederick, MD 21703
e-mail: scgulen@bechtel.com

Contributed by the Cycle Innovations Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received July 22, 2015; final manuscript received August 26, 2015; published online October 27, 2015. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 138(5), 051701 (Oct 27, 2015) (10 pages) Paper No: GTP-15-1360; doi: 10.1115/1.4031477 History: Received July 22, 2015; Revised August 26, 2015

In 1992, United States Department of Energy's (DOE) Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) program established a target of 60% efficiency for utility scale gas turbine (GT) power plants to be achieved by the year 2000. Although the program led to numerous technology breakthroughs, it took another decade for an actual combined cycle (CC) power plant with an H class GT to reach (and surpass) the target efficiency. Today, another target benchmark, 65% efficiency, circulates frequently in trade publications and engineering journals with scant support from existing technology, its development path as well as material limits, and almost no regard to theoretical (e.g., underlying physics) and practical (e.g., cost, complexity, reliability, and constructability) concerns. This paper attempts to put such claims to test and establish the room left for gas turbine combined cycle (GTCC) growth in the next two decades. The analysis and conclusions are firmly based on fundamental thermodynamic principles with carefully and precisely laid out assumptions and supported by rigorous calculations. The goal is to arm the practicing engineer with a consistent, coherent, and self-standing reference to critically evaluate claims, predictions, and other futuristic information pertaining to GTCC technology.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2016 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Schimmoller, B. K. , 1998, “ Technology Pushes Gas Turbines Higher,” Power Engineering, 102(4), pp. 16–24.
Diakunchak, I . S. , Gaul, G. R. , McQuiggan, G. , and Southall, L. R. , 2004, “ Siemens Westinghouse Advanced Turbine Systems Program Final Summary,” ASME J. Eng. Gas. Turbines Power, 126(3), pp. 524–530.
Gülen, S. C. , 2013, “ Modern Gas Turbine Combined Cycle,” Turbomach. Int., 54(6), pp. 31–35.
Feigl, M. , Setzer, F. , Feigl-Verecca, R. , Myers, G. , and Sweet, B. , 2005, “ Field Test Validation of the DLN2.5H Combustion System on the 9H Gas Turbine in Baglan Bay Power Station,” ASME Paper No. GT2005-68843.
Pritchard, J. E. , 2003, “ H System™ Technology Update,” ASME Paper No. GT2003-38711.
Schilke, P. W. , 2004, “ Advanced Gas Turbine Materials and Coatings,” General Electric, Schenectady, NY, GE Energy Report No. GER-3569G http://powergen.gepower.com/content/dam/gepower-powergen/global/en_US/documents/technical/ger/ger-3569g-advanced-gas-turbine-materials-coatings.pdf.
Clarke, D. R. , Öchsner, M. , and Padture, N. P. , 2012, “ Thermal-Barrier Coatings for More Efficient Gas-Turbine Engines,” MRS Bull., 37(10), pp. 891–898.
Horlock, J. H. , and Denton, J. D. , 2005, “ A Review of Some Early Design Practice Using Computational Fluid Dynamics and a Current Perspective,” ASME J. Turbomach., 127(1), pp. 5–13.
Chupp, R. E. , Hendricks, R. C. , Lattimer, S. B. , and Steinetz, B. M. , 2006, “ Sealing in Turbomachinery,” J. Propul. Power, 22(2), pp. 313–349.
Committee on Benefits of DOE R&D on Energy Efficiency and Fossil Energy, 2001, “ Advanced Turbine Systems, Program Description and History,” Energy Research at DOE—Was It Worth It? Energy Efficiency and Fossil Energy Research 1978–2000, National Academy Press, Washington, DC, pp. 185–187.
Fischer, W. J. , and Nag, P. , 2011, “ H-Class High Performance Siemens Gas Turbine SGT-8000H Series,” Power-Gen International, Las Vegas, NV, Dec. 13–15.
Prandi, R. , 2011, “ H Class Siemens Combined Cycle Plant Achieves 60.75% Efficiency,” Diesel and Gas Turbine Worldwide, 43(6), pp. 46–48.
Fischer, W. J. , Winter, W. , and Krömeke, J. , 2011, “ SCC5-8000H 1S Irsching 4 on the Way to 60% World Record,” PowerGen Europe, Milano, Italy, June 7–9.
deBiasi, V. , 2014, “ Air-Cooled 7HA and 9HA Designs Rated at Over 61% Efficiency,” Gas Turbine World, 44(2), pp. 10–13.
Bohn, D. , Dilthey, U. , and Schubert, F. , 2004, “ Innovative Technologien für ein GuD-Kraftwerk mit 65% Wirkungsgrad,” VDI-Berichte, 1857, pp. 13–25.
Gülen, S. C. , 2014, “ GE–Alstom Merger Brings Visions of the Überturbine,” Gas Turbine World, 44(4), pp. 28–35.
U.S. Energy Information Administration, 2014, “ Annual Energy Outlook 2014 With Projections to 2040,” U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC, Report No. DOE/EIA-0383(2014).
Bhargava, R. , Bianchi, M. , Campanari, S. , De Pascale, A. , di Montenegro, G. N. , and Peretto, A. , 2010, “ A Parametric Thermodynamic Evaluation of High Performance Gas Turbine Based Combined Cycles,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 132(2), p. 022001.
Bolland, O. , Kvamsdal, H. M. , and Boden, J. C. , 2001, “ A Thermodynamic Comparison of the Oxy-Fuel Power Cycles Water Cycle, Graz Cycle and Matiant Cycle,” International Conference Power Generation and Sustainable Development, Liège, Belgium, Oct. 8–9.
Gülen, S. C. , and Driscoll, A. V. , 2012, “ Simple Parametric Model for Quick Assessment of IGCC Performance,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 135(1), p. 011802.
Botero, C. , Finkenrath, M. , Bartlett, M. , Chu, R. , Choi, G. , and Chinn, D. , 2008, “ Redesign, Optimization, and Economic Evaluation of a Natural Gas Combined Cycle With the Best Integrated Technology CO2 Capture,” Energy Procedia, 1(1), pp. 3835–3842.
Gülen, S. C. , 2014, “ Second Law Analysis of Integrated Solar Combined Cycle Power Plants,” ASME Paper No. GT2014-26156.
Chiesa, P. , Lozza, G. , and Mazzocchi, L. , 2005, “ Using Hydrogen as Gas Turbine Fuel,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 127(1), pp. 73–80.
Rice, I. , 1986, “ Discussion: On Thermodynamics of Gas-Turbine Cycles: Parts 1, 2, and 3 (El-Masri, M. A., 1985, ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 107, pp. 880–889; 1986, ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 108, pp. 151–168),” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 108(1), pp. 168–170.
Smith, R. W. , Johansen, A. D. , and Ranasinghe, J. , 2005, “ Fuel Moisturization for Natural Gas Fired Combined Cycles,” ASME Paper No. GT2005-69012.
Bakken, L. E. , Jordal, K. , Syverud, E. , and Veer, T. , 2004, “ Centenary of the First Gas Turbine to Give Net Power Output: A Tribute to Ægidius Elling,” ASME Paper No. GT2004-53211.
Eckardt, D. , 2014, Gas Turbine Powerhouse—The Development of the Power Generation Gas Turbine at BBC—ABB—Alstom, Oldenburg Verlag, Münich, Germany.
Balling, L. , Termühlen, H. , and Baumgartner, R. , 2002, “ Forty Years of Combined Cycle Power Plants,” ASME Paper No. IJPGC2002-26111.
Maslak, C. E. , and Tomlinson, L. O. , 1994, “ GE Combined-Cycle Experience,” General Electric, Schenectady, NY, GE Industrial & Power Systems Report No. GER-3651D http://powergen.gepower.com/content/dam/gepower-powergen/global/en_US/documents/technical/ger/ger-3651d-ge-combined-cycle-experience.pdf.
Stodola, A. , 1927, Steam and Gas Turbines (authorized translation from the 6th German ed. by L. C. Löwenstein ), McGraw-Hill, New York.
Smith, R. W. , and Gülen, S. C. , 2012, “ Natural Gas Power,” Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology, Robert A. Meyers , ed., Vol. 10, Springer Verlag, Berlin, pp. 6804–6852.
Della Villa, S. A., Jr. , and Köneke, C. , 2010, “ A Historical and Current Perspective of the Availability and Reliability Performance of Heavy Duty Gas Turbines,” ASME Paper No. GT2010-23182.
Gülen, S. C. , and Mazumder, I. , 2013, “ An Expanded Cost of Electricity Model for Highly Flexible Power Plants,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 135(1), p. 011801.
U.S. Energy Information Administration , “Form EIA-923 Data,” U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC, http://www.eia.gov/electricity/data/eia923/
Gas Turbine World, 2013, Gas Turbine World 2013 GTW Handbook, Vol. 30, Pequot Publishing, Fairfield, CT.
Gas Turbine World, 1999, Gas Turbine World 1998–1999 Handbook, Vol. 19, Pequot Publishing, Fairfield, CT.
Gas Turbine World, 1990, Gas Turbine World 1990 Handbook, Vol. 11, Pequot Publishing, Fairfield, CT.
Bullinger, P. , 2012, “ Enhanced Water/Steam Cycle for Advanced Combined Cycle Technology,” PowerGen Asia, Bangkok, Thailand, Oct. 3–5.
Brückner, H. , Bergmann, D. , and Termühlen, H. , 1992, “ Various Concepts for Topping Steam Plants With Gas Turbines,” 54th American Power Conference, Chicago, IL, Apr. 13–15.
Becker, B. , and Thien, V. , 2003, “ High-Efficiency Gas Turbines Operating in Intermediate Duty,” International Gas Turbine Congress, Tokyo, Nov. 2–7, Paper No. TS-098.
Kawakami, K. , Kawai, J. , and Nagai, M. , 2009, “ Design and Test Operation Performance of 1500 °C Class Gas Turbine Combined-Cycle Power Plant: Construction of Group 1 of the Tokyo Electric Power Company's Kawasaki Thermal Power Station,” MHI Tech. Rev., 46(2), pp. 31–35 http://www.mhi-global.com/company/technology/review/abstracte-46-2-31.html.
Avison, M. , 2001, “ An Operator's Experience: Tapada do Outerio CCPP With World-Class Availability and Performance,” Siemens Power J., 1, pp. 18–22.
Ai, T. , Masada, J. , and Ito, E. , 2014, “ Development of the High Efficiency and Flexible Gas Turbine M701F5 by Applying ‘J’ Class Gas Turbine Technologies,” MHI Tech. Rev., 51(1), pp. 1–9 http://www.mhi-global.com/company/technology/review/abstracte-51-1-1.html.
Gebhardt, E. , 2000, “ The F Technology Experience Story,” General Electric, Atlanta, GA, GE Power Systems Report No. GER-3950C http://powergen.gepower.com/content/dam/gepower-powergen/global/en_US/documents/technical/ger/ger-3950c-f-technology-experience-story.pdf.
Chase, D. , and Kehoe, P. , 2000, “ GE Combined Cycle Product Line and Performance,” General Electric, Schenectady, NY, GE Power Systems Report No. GER-3574G http://powergen.gepower.com/content/dam/gepower-powergen/global/en_US/documents/technical/ger/ger-3574g-ge-cc-product-line-performance.pdf.
Ol'khovskii, G. G. , Radin, Y. A. , Mel'nikov, V . A. , Tuz, N. E. , and Mironenko, A. V. , 2013, “ Thermal Tests of the 9FB Gas Turbine Unit Produced by General Electric,” Therm. Eng., 60(9), pp. 607–612.
Patterson, J. R. , and Walsh, E. T. , 1983, “ A Manufacturer's Role in Heavy-Duty Gas Turbine Future Technology,” ASME Paper No. 83-GTJ-13.
Gas Turbine World, 2003, Gas Turbine World 2003 Handbook, Vol. 23, Pequot Publishing, Fairfield, CT.
Gas Turbine World, 2008, Gas Turbine World 2008 Handbook, Vol. 28, Pequot Publishing, Fairfield, CT.
Gülen, S. C. , and Smith, R. W. , 2010, “ Second Law Efficiency of the Rankine Bottoming Cycle of a Combined Cycle Power Plant,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 132(1), p. 011801.
Horlock, J. H. , 1994, “ Combined Cycle Power Plants—Past, Present, and Future,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 117(4), pp. 608–616.
Gülen, S. C. , 2011, “ A Simple Parametric Model for Analysis of Cooled Gas Turbines,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 133(1), p. 011801.
Gas Turbine World, 2014, 2014 Performance Specs, 30th ed., Pequot Publishing, Fairfield, CT.
Ito, E. , Tsukagoshi, K. , Muyama, A. , Masada, J. , and Torigoe, T. , 2010, “ Development of Key Technology for Ultra-High-Temperature Gas Turbines,” MHI Tech. Rev., 47(1), pp. 19–25 http://www.mhi-global.com/company/technology/review/abstracte-47-1-19.html.
Fant, D. B. , Jackson, G. S. , Karim, H. , Newburry, D. M. , Dutta, P. , Smith, K. O. , and Dibble, R. W. , 2003, “ Status of Catalytic Combustion R&D for the Department of Energy Advanced Turbine Systems Program,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 122(2), pp. 293–300.
Meher-Homji, C. , 1997, “ The Development of the Junkers Jumo 004B–The World's First Production Turbojet,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 119(4), pp. 783–789.
Harada, H. , 2003, “ High Temperature Materials for Gas Turbines: The Present and Future,” International Gas Turbine Congress 2003, Tokyo, Japan, Nov. 2–7, Paper No. KS-2.
Cerri, G. , Giovannelli, A. , Battisti, L. , and Fedrizzi, R. , 2007, “ Advances in Effusive Cooling Techniques of Gas Turbines,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 27(4), pp. 692–698.
Van Roode, M. , 2010, “ Ceramic Gas Turbine Development: Need for a 10 Year Plan,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 132(1), p. 011301.
Probert, T. , 2014, “ Exelon Will be the First to Debut GE's New 7HA.02 Gas Turbine,” Gas Turbine World, 44(5), pp. 14–19.
Grondahl, C. M. , and Tsuchiya, T. , 2001, “ Performance Benefit Assessment of Ceramic Component in an MS9001FA Gas Turbine,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 123(3), pp. 513–519.
Siemens, 2009, “  Hydraulic Clearance Optimization for Siemens Gas Turbines,” Siemens AG, Energy Services Division, Erlangen, Germany, Report No. E50001-G520-A173-X-4A00.
Rudolph, R. , Sunshine, R. , Woodhall, M. , and Handler, M. , 2009, “ Innovative Design Features of the SGT5-8000H Turbine and Secondary Air System,” ASME Paper No. GT2009-60137.
Rice, I. , 1982, “ The Reheat Gas Turbine With Steam-Blade Cooling—A Means of Increasing Reheat Pressure, Output, and Combined Cycle Efficiency,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 104(1), pp. 9–22.
Thermoflow, 2014, GT PRO Version 24.1.1, Thermoflow Inc., Southborough, MA.
Bolland, O. , 1991, “ A Comparative Evaluation of Advanced Combined Cycle Alternatives,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 113(2), pp. 190–197.
Gülen, S. C. , and Mazumder, I. , 2013, “ An Expanded Cost of Electricity Model for Highly Flexible Power Plants,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 135(1), p. 011801.
Gülen, S. C. , 2013, “ What Is the Worth of 1 Btu/kWh of Heat Rate?,” POWER, 157(6), pp. 60–63.
Gülen, S. C. , 2013, “ Performance Entitlement of Supercritical Steam Bottoming Cycle,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 135(12), p. 124501.
Mayer, A. , and van der Linden, S. , 1999, “ GT24/26 Advanced Cycle System Power Plant Progress for the New Millenium,” ASME Paper No. 99-GT-404.
Chiesa, P. , and Macchi, E. , 2004, “ A Thermodynamic Analysis of Different Options to Break 60% Electric Efficiency in Combined Cycle Power Plants,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 126(4), pp. 770–785.
Gülen, S. C. , 2010, “ Gas Turbine With Constant Volume Heat Addition,” ASME Paper No. ESDA2010-24817.
Gülen, S. C. , 2013, “ Constant Volume Combustion: The Ultimate Gas Turbine Cycle,” Gas Turbine World, 43(6), pp. 20–27.
Wilson, D. G. , and Korakianitis, T. , 1998, The Design of High-Efficiency Turbomachinery and Gas Turbines, 2nd ed., Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ.
Thiel, P. , and Masters, B. , 2014, Zero to One: Notes on Startups, or How to Build the Future, Crown Business, New York.
Gülen, S. C. , 2011, “ Importance of Auxiliary Power Consumption on Combined Cycle Performance,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 133(4), p. 041801.
Thermoflex, 2014, Thermoflex Version 24.1.1, Thermoflow Inc., Southborough, MA.
Bejan, A. , 1996, “ Models of Power Plants That Generate Minimum Entropy While Operating at Maximum Power,” Am. J. Phys., 64(8), pp. 1054–1059.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

GTCC evolution, 1985–2015 (A: TMI 1990 Handbook, B: GTW 1998-99 Handbook, C: GTW 2013 Handbook, 1: Ambarli, Turkey, 2: Tapada do Outerio, Portugal, 3: Mainz Wiesbaden, Germany, 4: Kawasaki, Japan, and 5: Irsching, Germany). Actual U.S. gas-fired GTCC generation data, from U.S. Energy Information Administration Form EIA-923, include some duct-fired units (2014 data are “early release” not final; 2015 data are preliminary until May). For each year, top 20 natural gas-fired GTCC plants are selected. The circles indicate the average efficiency of those (uncorrected); error bars indicate #1 (highest) and #20 (lowest). GT classes for selected plants in 2014 are denoted by diamonds.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

GT HGP cooling technology evolution [1]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

GT evolution, 1985–2015: A, B, and C same as in Fig. 2; D from measurements by Ol'khovskii et al. [46]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

GTCC bottoming cycle evolution, 1985–2015 (A, B, and C same as in Fig. 2, D: GTW 2003 Handbook, and E: GTW 2008 Handbook)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

GTCC net cycle efficiency map. The two data points are from OEM ratings in GTW 2013 Handbook [35].

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

GT efficiency—actual versus real cycle

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Rankine steam bottoming cycle technology. Note: Each percentage point in BC exergetic efficiency ∼¼% points in net GTCC efficiency.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Rankine steam bottoming cycle cost

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Equation (A1) prediction of published ratings [3537]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Actual GT cycle PR [35] compared to optimal PR for maximum GT specific output using different models

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

GT efficiency and exhaust temperature correlation

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In