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Research Papers: Internal Combustion Engines

Startup and Steady-State Performance of a New Renewable Hydroprocessed Depolymerized Cellulosic Diesel Fuel in Multiple Diesel Engines

[+] Author and Article Information
Eric Bermudez

U.S. Navy,
Annapolis, MD 21402
e-mail: m150468@usna.edu

Andrew McDaniel

U.S. Navy,
Patuxent River, MD 20670
e-mail: Andrew.mcdaniel@navy.mil

Terrence Dickerson

U.S. Navy,
Patuxent River, MD 20670
e-mail: Terrence.dickerson@navy.mil

Dianne Luning Prak

U.S. Naval Academy,
Annapolis, MD 21402
e-mail: prak@usna.edu

Len Hamilton

U.S. Naval Academy,
Annapolis, MD 21402
e-mail: ljhamilt@usna.edu

Jim Cowart

U.S. Naval Academy,
Annapolis, MD 21402
e-mail: cowart@usna.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the IC Engine Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received February 1, 2016; final manuscript received February 5, 2016; published online April 12, 2016. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 138(10), 102807 (Apr 12, 2016) (10 pages) Paper No: GTP-16-1048; doi: 10.1115/1.4032992 History: Received February 01, 2016; Revised February 05, 2016

A new hydroprocessed depolymerized cellulosic diesel (HDCD) fuel has been developed using a process which takes biomass feedstock (principally cellulosic wood) to produce a synthetic fuel that has nominally ½ cycloparaffins and ½ aromatic hydrocarbons in content. This HDCD fuel with a low cetane value (derived cetane number from the ignition quality tester, DCN = 27) was blended with naval distillate fuel (NATO symbol F-76) in various quantities and tested in order to determine how much HDCD could be blended before diesel engine operation becomes problematic. Blends of 20% HDCD (DCN = 45), 30%, 40% (DCN = 41), and 60% HDCD (DCN = 37) by volume were tested with conventional naval distillate fuel (DCN = 49). Engine start performance was evaluated with a conventional mechanically direct injected (DI) Yanmar engine and a Waukesha mechanical indirect injected (IDI) Cooperative Fuels Research (CFR) diesel engine and showed that engine start times increased steadily with increasing HDCD content. Longer start times with increasing HDCD content were the result of some engine cycles with poor combustion leading to a slower rate of engine acceleration toward rated speed. A repeating sequence of alternating cycles which combust followed by a noncombustion cycle was common during engine run-up. Additionally, steady-state engine testing was also performed using both engines. HDCD has a significantly higher bulk modulus than F76 due to its very high aromatic content, and the engines showed earlier start of injection (SOI) timing with increasing HDCD content for equivalent operating conditions. Additionally, due to the lower DCN, the higher HDCD blends showed moderately longer ignition delay (IGD) with moderately shorter overall burn durations. Thus, the midcombustion metric (CA50: 50% burn duration crank angle position) was only modestly affected with increasing HDCD content. Increasing HDCD content beyond 40% leads to significantly longer start times.

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References

Figures

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Fig. 1

Alternative fuel combustion criteria

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Fig. 2

Chromatograms of petroleum F76 and HDCD

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Fig. 3

Indicated torque (GMEP) results with increasing HDCD content in F76

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Fig. 4

Representative engine cycle ∼30 s after start of cranking using F76 fuel

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Fig. 5

Representative engine cycle ∼30 s after start of cranking using 40-60 F76-HDCD fuel

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Fig. 6

SOI during the first 30 s of engine startup for the five fuels tested

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Fig. 7

IGD for the various F76-HDCD blends during engine startup

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Fig. 8

Burn duration during the first half-minute of engine operation

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Fig. 9

The location of 50% fuel burned during the first one-half minute of engine operation with the various fuel blends

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Fig. 10

Representative engine cycle shortly after engine start with F76 fuel

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Fig. 11

Representative engine cycle approximately one-half minute after engine start with F76 fuel

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Fig. 12

PSOI with various fuel blends during the engine start and run-up

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Fig. 13

Yanmar rpm startup results

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Fig. 14

Yanmar GMEP startup results

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Fig. 15

Misfire characteristics—number of cycles in between firing cycles (y-axis)

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Fig. 16

SOI during startup

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Fig. 17

IGD results using the 10% cumulative HRR criterion for SOC (deg)

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Fig. 18

IGD results using the 10% cumulative HRR criterion for SOC (ms)

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Fig. 19

Yanmar burn duration for all the five fuels

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Fig. 20

Yanmar CA50 with the five fuels

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Fig. 21

PSOI in Yanmar for the five fuels tested

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