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Research Papers: Internal Combustion Engines

Experimental Analysis of Sudden Pressure Increase Phenomenon by Real-Time Internal Observation of Diesel Particulate Filter

[+] Author and Article Information
Rui Fukui

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
The University of Tokyo,
Bunkyo-ku,
Tokyo 1138656, Japan
e-mail: fukui@hnl.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp

Yuki Okamoto

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
The University of Tokyo,
Bunkyo-ku,
Tokyo 1138656, Japan
e-mail: okamoto@hnl.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp

Masayuki Nakao

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
The University of Tokyo,
Bunkyo-ku,
Tokyo 1138656, Japan
e-mail: nakao@hnl.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp

Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute (IGTI) of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received January 26, 2016; final manuscript received February 18, 2016; published online April 12, 2016. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 138(10), 102803 (Apr 12, 2016) (7 pages) Paper No: GTP-16-1036; doi: 10.1115/1.4033061 History: Received January 26, 2016; Revised February 18, 2016

As a way of reducing the amount of particulate matter (PM) contained in the exhaust gas, diesel particulate filter (DPF) is widely used. To keep the condition of DPF normal and effective, estimation of the amount of PM deposits in the DPF is important. The estimation is mainly conducted based on the value of pressure drop across the DPF. Occasionally, the value of the pressure drop rises suddenly and it leads to overestimation of the amount of PM deposits. In order to elucidate the cause of the sudden pressure drop increase phenomenon, this paper first reveals the engine operating conditions which invoke this phenomenon. The authors also have developed a visualization method to realize the wide-perspective internal observation of the DPF. The observation experiment has been conducted with a commercial engine and DPF under the revealed conditions. Experimental results make clear that the phenomenon is caused by PM deposit layer collapse and channel plugging.

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References

Ristovski, Z. D. , Miljevic, B. , Surawski, N. C. , Morawska, L. , Fong, K. M. , Goh, F. , and Yang, I. A. , 2012, “ Respiratory Health Effects of Diesel Particulate Matter,” Respirology, 17(2), pp. 201–212. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
EPA, 2015, “ Emission Standards Reference Guide for On-Road and Nonroad Vehicles and Engines,” U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Ann Arbor, MI, http://www.epa.gov/otaq/standards/nonroad/nonroadci.htm
Guo, Z. , Zhang, Z. , Sheng, B. , and Peng, W. , 2008, “ Three-Dimensional Transient Elastic Thermal Stress Field During Diesel Particulate Filter Regeneration,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 131(1), p. 012802.
Kim, K. , Mital, R. , Higuchi, T. , Chan, S. , and Kim, C. H. , 2014, “ An Investigative Study of Sudden Pressure Increase Phenomenon Across the DPF,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2014-01-1516.
Foley, F. , Johnson, J. , Naber, J. , and Rogoski, L. , 2015, “ Experimental Measurements of Particulate Matter Distribution in a Catalyzed Particulate Filter,” Emiss. Control Sci. Technol., 1(1), pp. 32–48. [CrossRef]
Sappok, A. , Wang, Y. , Wang, R.-Q. , Kamp, C. , and Wong, V. , 2014, “ Theoretical and Experimental Analysis of Ash Accumulation and Mobility in Ceramic Exhaust Particulate Filters and Potential for Improved Ash Management,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2014-01-1517.
Tsuruta, T. , and Hanamura, K. , 2007, “ Visualization Study of PM Trapping and Reaction Phenomena in Micro-Structural Pores Through Cross Section of DPF Wall,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2007-01-0917.
Hikichi, R. , Nakamura, K. , Hanamura, K. , Nagato, K. , Nakao, M. , and Hamaguchi, T. , 2014, “ Real-Time Optical Observation of Soot Trapping Phenomena in DPF,” Japan Society for Precision Engineering Spring Conference (JSPE), Tokyo, Japan, Mar. 18–20, pp. 41–42 (in Japanese).

Figures

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Fig. 2

DPF internal visualization device in previous work [6]

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Fig. 4

DPF visualization processes (1) cut and grind DPF, (2) insert spacer and coat with adhesive material, (3) adhere glass, and (4) infill sealant

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Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of PM layer behavior

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Fig. 3

Newly developed DPF internal visualization device

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Fig. 5

Experimental system

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Fig. 10

Small circles indicate the time when the sudden pressure drop increase phenomenon occurs

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Fig. 11

Images of inflow channels acquired by fiberscope

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Fig. 6

Snapshot of visualization experiment

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Fig. 7

Time series graphs of acquired data. Pressure drop across the DPF increase suddenly.

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Fig. 8

Offline image of observation surface indicating positions of PM layer collapses

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Fig. 9

Images captured from movie indicating the phenomenon of the PM layer collapse

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