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Research Papers: Internal Combustion Engines

Factors Determining Antiknocking Properties of Gaseous Fuels in Spark-Ignition Gas Engines

[+] Author and Article Information
Hiroki Tanaka

Osaka Gas Co., Ltd.,
6-19-9, Torishima, Konohana-ku,
Osaka 5540051, Japan
e-mail: hiroki-tanaka@osakagas.co.jp

Kazunobu Kobayashi

Osaka Gas Co., Ltd.,
6-19-9, Torishima, Konohana-ku,
Osaka 5540051, Japan
e-mail: kazu-kobayashi@osakagas.co.jp

Takahiro Sako

Osaka Gas Co., Ltd.,
5-11-61, Torishima, Konohana-ku,
Osaka 5540051, Japan
e-mail: sako@osakagas.co.jp

Kazunari Kuwahara

Osaka Institute of Technology,
5-16-1 Omiya, Asahi-ku,
Osaka 535-8585, Japan
e-mail: kazunari.kuwahara@oit.ac.jp

Hiroshi Kawanabe

Graduate School of Energy Science,
Kyoto University,
Yoshida-honmachi, Sakyo-ku,
Kyoto 606-8501, Japan
e-mail: kawanabe@energy.kyoto-u.ac.jp

Takuji Ishiyama

Graduate School of Energy Science,
Kyoto University,
Yoshida-honmachi, Sakyo-ku,
Kyoto 606-8501, Japan
e-mail: ishiyama@energy.kyoto-u.ac.jp

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the IC Engine Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received January 28, 2016; final manuscript received February 17, 2016; published online April 12, 2016. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 138(10), 102806 (Apr 12, 2016) (8 pages) Paper No: GTP-16-1046; doi: 10.1115/1.4033063 History: Received January 28, 2016; Revised February 17, 2016

The factors affecting knock resistance of fuels, including hydrogen (H2), ethane (C2H6), propane (C3H8), normal butane (n-C4H10), and iso-butane (i-C4H10), were determined using modeling and engine operation tests with spark-ignition gas engines. The results of zero-dimensional detailed chemical kinetic computations indicated that H2 had the longest ignition delay time of these gaseous fuels. Thus, H2 possessed the lowest ignitability. The results of engine operation tests indicated that H2 was the fuel most likely to result in knocking. The use of H2 as the fuel produced a temperature profile of the unburned gas compressed by the piston and flame front that was higher than that of the other fuels due to the high-specific heat ratio and burning velocity of H2. The relation between knock resistance and secondary fuel ratio in methane-based fuel blends also was investigated using methane (CH4) as the primary component, and H2, C2H6, C3H8, n-C4H10, or i-C4H10 as the secondary components. When the secondary fuel ratio was small, the CH4/H2 blend possessed the lowest knocking tendency. But as the secondary fuel ratio increased, the CH4/H2 mixture possessed a greater tendency to knock than CH4/C2H6 due to the high-specific heat ratio and burning velocity of H2. These results indicate that the knocking that can occur with gaseous fuels is not only dependent on the ignitability of the fuel but it also the specific heat ratio and burning velocity.

Copyright © 2016 by ASME
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References

Figures

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Fig. 4

In-cylinder pressure and heat release rate for ignition timing of 5 deg ATDC

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Fig. 5

In-cylinder pressure and heat release rate for knocking intensity of 200 kPa

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Fig. 6

In-cylinder pressure and heat release rate for n-C4H10 when ignition timing is varied

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Fig. 3

Relation between ignition timing and average knocking intensity

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Fig. 2

Relation between initial temperature and ignition delay time for single-component fuels

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Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of test apparatus

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Fig. 7

Method for calculating heat release due to end-gas auto-ignition

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Fig. 8

Relation between end-gas heat release fraction and average knocking intensity

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Fig. 9

In-cylinder pressure, high-frequency component of in-cylinder pressure, and heat release rate

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Fig. 10

Unburned gas temperature with ignition timing of 5 deg ATDC

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Fig. 11

Specific heat ratio of unburned gas with ignition timing of 5 deg ATDC

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Fig. 12

Relation between ignition timing and combustion duration

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Fig. 13

Unburned gas temperature with knocking intensity of 200 kPa

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Fig. 14

Profiles of temperature, in-cylinder pressure, and volumetric heat release rate

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Fig. 16

Relation between secondary fuel ratio and average knocking intensity with ignition timing of −10 deg ATDC

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Fig. 17

Unburned gas temperature with secondary fuel ratio of 0.2 for CH4/H2 and CH4/C2H6

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Fig. 18

Unburned gas temperature with secondary fuel ratio of 0.4 for CH4/H2 and CH4/C2H6

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Fig. 19

Heat release rate with secondary fuel ratio of 0.4 for CH4/H2 and CH4/C2H6

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Fig. 15

Relation between secondary fuel ratio and average knocking intensity with ignition timing of −16 deg ATDC

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Fig. 20

Specific heat ratio for various dual-component fuels

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