0
Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

The Influence of Diluent Gases on Combustion Properties of Natural Gas: A Combined Experimental and Modeling Study

[+] Author and Article Information
Sandra Richter, Jörn Ermel, Thomas Kick, Clemens Naumann, Uwe Riedel

German Aerospace Center (DLR),
Institute of Combustion Technology,
Pfaffenwaldring 38-40,
Stuttgart 70569, Germany

Marina Braun-Unkhoff

German Aerospace Center (DLR),
Institute of Combustion Technology,
Pfaffenwaldring 38-40,
Stuttgart 70569, Germany
e-mail: Marina.Braun-Unkhoff@dlr.de

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received December 21, 2015; final manuscript received March 4, 2016; published online April 26, 2016. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 138(10), 101503 (Apr 26, 2016) (9 pages) Paper No: GTP-15-1572; doi: 10.1115/1.4033160 History: Received December 21, 2015; Revised March 04, 2016

Currently, new concepts for power generation are discussed, as a response to combat global warming due to CO2 emissions stemming from the combustion of fossil fuels. These concepts include new, low-carbon fuels as well as centralized and decentralized solutions. Thus, a more diverse range of fuel supplies will be used, with (biogenic) low-caloric gases such as syngas and coke oven gas (COG) among them. Typical for theses low-caloric gases is the amount of hydrogen, with a share of 50% and even higher. However, hydrogen mixtures have a higher reactivity than natural gas (NG) mixtures, burned mostly in today's gas turbine combustors. Therefore, in the present work, a combined experimental and modeling study of nitrogen-enriched hydrogen–air mixtures, some of them with a share of methane, to be representative for COG, will be discussed focusing on laminar flame speed data as one of the major combustion properties. Measurements were performed in a burner test rig at ambient pressure and at a preheat temperature T0 of 373 K. Flames were stabilized at fuel–air ratios between about φ = 0.5–2.0 depending on the specific fuel–air mixture. This database was used for the validation of four chemical kinetic reaction models, including an in-house one, and by referring to hydrogen-enriched NG mixtures. The measured laminar flame speed data of nitrogen-enriched methane–hydrogen–air mixtures are much smaller than the ones of nitrogen-enriched hydrogen–air mixtures. The grade of agreement between measured and predicted data depends on the type of flames and the type of reaction model as well as of the fuel–air ratio: a good agreement was found in the fuel lean and slightly fuel-rich regime; a large underprediction of the measured data exists at very fuel-rich ratios (φ > 1.4). From the results of the present work, it is obvious that further investigations should focus on highly nitrogen-enriched methane–air mixtures, in particular for very high fuel–air ratio (φ > 1.4). This knowledge will contribute to a more efficient and a more reliable use of low-caloric gases for power generation.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2016 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

OECD, 2010, “World Energy Outlook 2010,” OECD Publishing, Paris, France.
IEA, 2011, Technology Roadmap‐Biofuels for Transport Report, International Energy Agency, Paris, http://www.iea.org/papers/2011/biofuels_roadmap.pdf
Kick, Th. , Kathrotia, T. , Braun-Unkhoff, M. , and Riedel, U. , 2011, “ An Experimental and Modeling Study of Laminar Flame Speeds of Alternative Aviation Fuels,” ASME Paper No. GT2011-45606 (2011).
Kick, Th. , Herbst, J. , Kathrotia, T. , Marquetand, J. , Braun-Unkhoff, M. , Naumann, C. , and Riedel, U. , 2012, “ An Experimental and Modeling Study of Burning Velocities of Possible Future Synthetic Jet Fuels,” Energy, 43(1), pp. 111–123. [CrossRef]
Mzé Ahmed, A. , Dagaut, P. , Hadj-Ali, K. , Dayma, G. , Kick, T. , Herbst, J. , Kathrotia, T. , Braun-Unkhoff, M. , Herzler, J. , Naumann, C. , and Riedel, U. , 2012, “ Oxidation of a Coal-to-Liquid Synthetic Jet Fuel: Experimental and Chemical Kinetic Modeling Study,” Energy Fuels, 26(10), pp. 6070–6079. [CrossRef]
Dagaut, P. , Karsenty, F. , Dayma, G. , Diévart, P. , Hadj-Ali, K. , and Mzé-Ahmed, A. , 2013, “ Experimental and Detailed Kinetic Model for the Oxidation of a Gas to Liquid (GtL) Jet Fuel,” Combust. Flame, 161(3), pp. 835–847. [CrossRef]
Braun-Unkhoff, M. , and Riedel, U. , 2014, “ Alternative Fuels in Aviation,” CEAS Aeronaut. J., 6(1), pp. 83–93. [CrossRef]
EU Commission, “ European Roadmap for Moving to a Competitive Low-Carbon Economy in 2050,” European Commission, Brussels, Belgium, accessed Oct. 17, 2014, http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX:52011DC0112
BMWi, 2011, “ Germany's New Energy Policy,” German Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy, Berlin, Germany, accessed Oct. 17, 2014, http://www.bmwi.de/EN/Service/Publications/publications-archive,did=492562.html
Gadde, S. , Wu, J. , Gulati, A. , McQuiggan, G. M. , Koestlin, B. , and Prade, B. , 2006, “ Syngas Capable Combustion Systems Development for Advanced Gas Turbines,” ASME Paper No. GT2006-90970.
Lindfeldt, E. G. , and Westermark, M. O. , 2006, “ An Integrated Gasification Zero Emission Plant Using Oxygen Produced in a Mixed Conducting Membrane Reactor,” ASME Paper No. GT2006-90183.
Delattin, F. , Bram, S. , and De Ruyck, J. , 2006, “ Co-Utilization of Biomass and Natural Gas in an Existing Power Plant Through Primary Steam Reforming of Natural Gas,” ASME Paper No. GT2006-90012.
Payne, R. C. , Arias, M. , and Stefanis, V. , 2014, “ A Novel Intake Concept for Flue Gas Recirculation to Enhance CCS in an Industrial Gas Turbine,” ASME Paper No. GT2014-25469.
Lewis, J. , Marsh, C. , Valera-Medina, A. , Morris, S. , and Baej, H. , 2014, “ The Use of CO2 to Improve Stability and Emissions of an IGCC Combustor,” ASME Paper No. GT2014-25446.
Slavinskaya, N. , Braun-Unkhoff, M. , and Frank, P. , 2005, “ Reduced Reaction Mechanisms for Methane and Syngas Combustion in Gas Turbines,” ASME Paper No. GT2005-68287.
Herzler, J. , Herbst, J. , Kick, Th. , Naumann, C. , Braun-Unkhoff, M. , and Riedel, U. , 2013, “ Alternative Fuels Based on Biomass: An Investigation on Combustion Properties of Product Gases,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 135(3), p. 031401. [CrossRef]
Methling, T. , Braun-Unkhoff, M. , and Riedel, U. , 2013, “ A Chemical-Kinetic Investigation of Combustion Properties of Alternative Fuels—A Step Towards a More Efficient Power Generation,” ASME Paper No. GT2013-94994.
Methling, T. , Armbrust, N. , Haitz, T. , Speidel, M. , Poboss, N. , Braun-Unkhoff, M. , Dieter, H. , Kempter-Regel, B. , Kraaij, G. , Schliessmann, U. , Sterr, Y. , Wörner, A. , Hirth, T. , Riedel, U. , and Scheffknecht, G. , 2014, “ Power Generation Based on Biomass by Combined Fermentation and Gasification—A New Concept Derived From Experiments and Modelling,” Bioresour. Technol., 169, pp. 510–517. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Smith, G. P. , Golden, D. M. , Frenklach, M. , Moriarty, N. W. , Eiteneer, B. , Goldenberg, M. , Bowman, C. T. , Hanson, R. K. , Song, S. , Gardiner, W. C., Jr. , Lissianski, J. , and Qin, Z. , 1999, “GRI 3.0 Mechanism, Version 3.0,” Gas Research Institute, University of California, Berkeley, CA, http://www.me.berkeley.edu/gri_mech
Braun-Unkhoff, M. , Dembowski, J. , Herzler, J. , Karle, J. , Naumann, C. , and Riedel, U. , 2014, “ Alternative Fuels based on Biomass: An Experimental and Modeling Study of Ethanol Co-Firing to Natural Gas,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 137(9), p. 091503. [CrossRef]
Herzler, J. , and Naumann, C. , 2009, “ Shock-Tube Study of the Ignition of Methane/Ethane/Hydrogen Mixtures With Hydrogen Contents From 0 to 100% at Different Pressures,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 32(1), pp. 213–220. [CrossRef]
Herzler, J. , and Naumann, C. , 2008, “ Shock Tube Study of the Ignition of Lean CO/H2 Fuel Blends at Intermediate Temperatures and High Pressure,” Combust. Sci. Technol., 180(10), pp. 2015–2028. [CrossRef]
Braun-Unkhoff, M. , Slavinskaya, N. A. , and Aigner, M. , 2010, “ Detailed and Reduced Reaction Mechanism of Biomass-Based Syngas Fuels,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 132(9), p. 091401. [CrossRef]
Braun-Unkhoff, M. , Slavinskaya, N. , and Frank, P. , 2010, “ Enhancement of a Detailed Mechanism of Propene,” ASME Paper No. GT2010-23360.
Braun-Unkhoff, M. , Kick, T. , Frank, P. , and Aigner, M. , 2007, “ Alternative Investigation on Laminar Flame Speed as Part of Needed Combustion Characteristics of Biomass-Based Syngas Fuels,” ASME Paper No. GT2007-27479.
Braun-Unkhoff, M. , Kick, Th. , Steil, U. , Tsurikov, M. , Weigand, P. , and Aigner, M. , 2005, “ A Contribution Towards Electricity Generation Based on Biomass Gasification—Experimental Investigations of Gas Characteristics,” 14th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition, Paris, Oct. 17–20, pp. 647–677.
Kick, Th. , Herzler, J. , Braun-Unkhoff, M. , Naumann, C. , Aigner, M. , Boukis, N. , Galla, U. , and Dinjus, E. , 2008, “ Investigations of the Combustion Properties of the Product Gas Gained From the Gasification of Wet Biomass in Supercritical Water,” 16th European Biomass Conference, Valencia, Spain, June 2–6.
Braun-Unkhoff, M. , Kick, Th. , Herzler, J. , Herbst, J. , Naumann, C. , Frank, P. , and Aigner, M. , 2007, “ Measurements of Combustion Relevant Properties of Biogenic Gas Mixtures as Basis for Their Use in Modern Gas Turbines,” 15th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition, Berlin, May 7–11, pp. 958–961.
Herzler, J. , Braun-Unkhoff, M. , and Naumann, C. , 2011, “ Study of Combustion Properties of Product Gases From Wood Gasification and Anaerobic Algae Fermentation,” 19th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition, Berlin, June 6–9, pp. 836–840.
Li, J. , Zhao, Z. , Kazakov, A. , Chaos, M. , Dryer, F. L. , and Scire, J. J., Jr ., 2007, “ A Comprehensive Kinetic Mechanism for CO, CH2O, and CH3OH Combustion,” Int. J. Chem. Kinet., 39(3), pp. 109–136. [CrossRef]
Petrova, M. V. , and Williams, F. A. , 2006, “ A Small Detailed Chemical-Kinetic Mechanism for Hydrocarbon Combustion,” Combust. Flame, 144(3), pp. 526–544. [CrossRef]
Kintech, 2016, “ Chemical Workbench,” Kintech Laboratory, Moscow, http://www.kintechlab.com/products/chemical-workbench/
Griebel, P. , Siewert, P. , and Jansohn, P. , 2007, “ Flame Characteristics of Turbulent Lean Premixed Methane/Air Flames at High Pressure: Turbulent Flame Speed and Flame Brush Thickness,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 31(2), pp. 3083–3090. [CrossRef]
Erickson, D. M. , Day, S. A. , and Doyle, R. , 2003, “ Design Considerations for Heated Gas Fuel,” GE Power Systems, Greenville, SC, Paper No. GER-4189B.
Dubbel, Ed. , Beitz, W. , and Küttner, K. H. , 1990, Taschenbuch für den Maschinenbau, 17th ed., Springer-Verlag, Berlin, p. D42.
Eberius, H. , and Kick, Th. , 1992, “ Stabilization of Premixed, Conical Methane Flames at High Pressure,” Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem., 96(10), pp. 1416–1419. [CrossRef]
Petersen, E. L. , Davidson, D. F. , and Hanson, R. K. , 1999, “ Kinetics Modeling of Shock-Induced Ignition in Low-Dilution CH4/O2 Mixtures at High Pressures and Intermediate Temperatures,” Combust. Flame, 117(1–2), pp. 272–290. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Characteristic combustion properties. Left: laminar flame speeds of fuel–air mixtures at p = 1 bar, T0 = 373 K. Calculations (curves) for methane, NG, syngas, biogenic gas: GRI 3.0 [19]; for ethanol (10% ethanol + 90% RG): DLR [20]. Right: ignition delay times measured (symbols) and predicted (curves, DLR reaction model [20]) of fuel–air mixtures diluted in argon 1:5 at φ = 1.0, p = 4 bar, oxidizer: 79% Ar–11% O2. Fuel: H2 [21]—circles, 50% H2–50% CO [22]—squares, biogenic gas [16]—stars, ethanol [20]—dark diamond, RG + 10% ethanol [20]—triangles down; NG [21]—rhombus, and CH4—triangles.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Experimental setup of the burner system

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Typical flames burned in air at p = 1 atm and T0 = 373 K, for two fuel–air mixtures: 20% CH4–20% H2–60% N2 (a) and (c); 80% H2–20% N2 bar (b) and (d). Fuel–air ratio: φ = 1.12 (a), φ = 1.01 (b), φ = 1.39 (c), and φ = 2.03 (d).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Comparison between measured burning velocities (symbols) and calculated laminar flame speeds (curves) of fuel–air mixtures of system I, at p = 1 bar and T0 = 373 K. Fuel: 100% methane (a), 50% CH4–20% H2–30% N2 (b), 20% CH4–20% H2–60% N2 (c), and 50% H2–50% CH4 and all three mixtures given before (d). Calculations with reaction models of DLR [20]—full, GRI 3.0 [19]—dashed, Li et al. [30]—dashed–dotted, and PeWi [31]—dotted.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Comparison between measured burning velocities (symbols) and calculated laminar flame speeds (curves) of fuel–air mixtures of system II, at p = 1 bar and T0 = 373 K. Fuel: 100% H2 (a), 80% H2–20% N2 (b), 60% H2–40% N2 (c), and 40% H2–60% N2 (d). Calculations with reaction models of DLR [20]—full, GRI 3.0 [19]—dashed, Li et al. [30]—dashed-dotted, and Petrova–Williams [31]—dotted.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Comparison between measured burning velocities (symbols) and calculated laminar flame speeds (curves; DLR reaction model [20]) of two fuel–air mixtures (systems I and II), at p = 1 bar and T0 = 373 K

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Comparison between measured burning velocities (symbols) and calculated (curves) laminar flame speeds of two fuel–air mixtures (system II, and H2-RG [16]), at p = 1 bar and T0 = 373 K. Calculations with reaction models of DLR [20]—full; GRI 3.0 [19]—dashed. Fuel–air ratio φ = 1.0 (left); φ = 0.8, 1.0, and 1.5 (right).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Sensitivity analysis with respect to laminar flame speed of a (50% CH4–20% H2–30% N2) air mixture (system I), for three fuel–air ratios. Calculations with reaction models: DLR [20] left; GRI 3.0 [19] right.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Sensitivity analysis with respect to laminar flame speed of a (80% H2–20%N2) air mixture (system II), for three fuel–air ratios. Calculations with reaction models: DLR [20] left; GRI 3.0 [19] right.

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In