Research Papers: Internal Combustion Engines

Effect of the Fuel Injection Strategy on Diesel Particulate Filter Regeneration in a Single-Cylinder Diesel Engine

[+] Author and Article Information
Sungjun Yoon

Department of Mechanical Convergence
Graduate School of Hanyang University,
Seoul 04763, South Korea
e-mail: yoon335@hanyang.ac.kr

Hongsuk Kim

Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials,
Daejeon 34103, South Korea
e-mail: hongsuk@kimm.re.kr

Daesik Kim

Department of Precision Engineering,
Gangneung-Wonju National University,
Gangwon-do 25457, South Korea
e-mail: dkim@gwnu.ac.kr

Sungwook Park

School of Mechanical Engineering,
Hanyang University,
Seoul 04763, South Korea
e-mail: parks@hanyang.ac.kr

Contributed by the IC Engine Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received January 26, 2016; final manuscript received March 2, 2016; published online April 26, 2016. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 138(10), 102810 (Apr 26, 2016) (6 pages) Paper No: GTP-16-1032; doi: 10.1115/1.4033161 History: Received January 26, 2016; Revised March 02, 2016

Stringent emission regulations (e.g., Euro-6) have forced automotive manufacturers to equip a diesel particulate filter (DPF) on diesel cars. Generally, postinjection is used as a method to regenerate the DPF. However, it is known that postinjection deteriorates the specific fuel consumption and causes oil dilution for some operating conditions. Thus, an injection strategy for regeneration is one of the key technologies for diesel powertrains equipped with a DPF. This paper presents correlations between the fuel injection strategy and exhaust gas temperature for DPF regeneration. The experimental apparatus consists of a single-cylinder diesel engine, a DC dynamometer, an emission test bench, and an engine control system. In the present study, the postinjection timing was in the range of 40 deg aTDC to 110 deg aTDC and double postinjection was considered. In addition, the effects of the injection pressure were investigated. The engine load was varied among low load to midload conditions, and the amount of fuel of postinjection was increased up to 10 mg/stk. The oil dilution during the fuel injection and combustion processes was estimated by the diesel loss measured by comparing two global equivalences ratios: one measured from a lambda sensor installed at the exhaust port and one estimated from the intake air mass and injected fuel mass. In the present study, the differences of the global equivalence ratios were mainly caused by the oil dilution during postinjection. The experimental results of the present study suggest optimal engine operating conditions including the fuel injection strategy to obtain an appropriate exhaust gas temperature for DPF regeneration. The experimental results of the exhaust gas temperature distributions for various engine operating conditions are discussed. In addition, it was revealed that the amount of oil dilution was reduced by splitting the postinjection (i.e., double postinjection). The effects of the injection pressure on the exhaust gas temperature were dependent on the combustion phasing and injection strategies.

Copyright © 2016 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Johnson, T. , 2014, “ Vehicular Emissions in Review,” SAE Int. J. Engines, 7(3), pp. 1207–1227. [CrossRef]
Singh, N. , Rutland, C. J. , Foster, D. E. , Narayanaswamy, K. , and He, Y. , 2009, “ Investigation Into Different DPF Regeneration Strategies Based on Fuel Economy Using Integrated System Simulation,” SAE Paper No. 2009-01-1275.
Bozic, G. , Kook, S. , Ekoto, I. W. , Petersen, B. R. , and Miles, P. C. , 2011, “ Optical Investigation Into Wall Wetting From Late-Cycle Post-Injections Used for Diesel Particulate Filter Regeneration,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 133(9), p. 092803. [CrossRef]
Molina, S. , Desantes, J. M. , Garcia, A. , and Pastor, J. M. , 2010, “ A Numerical Investigation on Combustion Characteristics With the Use of Post Injection in DI Diesel Engines,” SAE Paper No. 2010-01-1260.
Desantes, J. M. , Arrègle, J. , López, J. J. , and García, A. , 2007, “ A Comprehensive Study of Diesel Combustion and Emissions With Post-Injection,” SAE Paper No. 2007-01-0915.
Benajes, J. , Molina, S. , and García, J. M. , 2001, “ Influence of Pre- and Post-Injection on the Performance and Pollutant Emissions in a HD Diesel Engine,” SAE Paper No. 2001-01-0526.
Dec, J. E. , 1997, “ A Conceptual Model of DI Diesel Combustion Based on Laser-Sheet Imaging*,” SAE Paper No. 970873.
O'Connor, J. , and Musculus, M. , 2014, “ Effect of Load on Close-Coupled Post-Injection Efficacy for Soot Reduction in an Optical Heavy-Duty Diesel Research Engine,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 136(10), p. 101509. [CrossRef]
O'Connor, J. , and Musculus, M. , 2013, “ Post Injections for Soot Reduction in Diesel Engines: A Review of Current Understanding,” SAE Int. J. Engines, 6(1), pp. 400–421. [CrossRef]
Bobba, M. , Musculus, M. , and Neel, W. , 2010, “ Effect of Post Injections on In-Cylinder and Exhaust Soot for Low-Temperature Combustion in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine,” SAE Int. J. Engines, 3(1), pp. 496–516. [CrossRef]
Barro, C. , Tschanz, F. , Obrecht, P. , and Boulouchos, K. , 2012, “ Influence of Post-Injection Parameters on Soot Formation and Oxidation in a Common-Rail-Diesel Engine Using Multi-Color-Pyrometry,” ASME Paper No. ICEF2012-92075.
Mendez, S. , and Thirouard, B. , 2008, “ Using Multiple Injection Strategies in Diesel Combustion: Potential to Improve Emissions, Noise and Fuel Economy Trade-Off in Low CR Engines,” SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr., 1(1), pp. 662–674. [CrossRef]
Heywood, J. B. , 1988, Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals, McGraw-Hill, New York.
Han, M. , Assanis, D. N. , and Bohac, S. V. , 2009, “ Sources of Hydrocarbon Emissions From Low-Temperature Premixed Compression Ignition Combustion From a Common Rail Direct Injection Diesel Engine,” Combust. Sci. Technol., 181(3), pp. 496–517. [CrossRef]
Musculus, M. P. B. , Lachaux, T. , Pickett, L. M. , and Idicheria, C. A. , 2007, “ End-of-Injection Over-Mixing and Unburned Hydrocarbon Emissions in Low-Temperature-Combustion Diesel Engines,” SAE Paper No. 2007-01-0907.
Budde, M. , Ehrly, M. , Jakob, M. , Wittler, M. , and Pischinger, S. , 2011, “ Simulation and Optical Analysis of Oil Dilution in Diesel Regeneration Operation,” SAE Paper No. 2011-01-1844.
Yun, H. , and Reitz, R. D. , 2005, “ An Experimental Investigation on the Effect of Post-Injection Strategies on Combustion and Emissions in the Low-Temperature Diesel Combustion Regime,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 129(1), pp. 279–286. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Comparison of the temperatures at the inlet and outlet of the DOC with 14 + 5 mg injection. The main injection was kept constant at 10 deg bTDC.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Comparison of the temperatures at the inlet and outlet of the DOC with 14 + 10 mg injection

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Comparison of the THC conversion rates obtained at the different injection pressures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Comparison of the inlet and outlet temperatures at different injection pressures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Schematics of the injection conditions

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Test engine and fuel injection system

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Comparison of the CO emissions obtained with 14 + 5 mg injection and 14 + 10 mg injection at the inlet and outlet of the DOC

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Comparison of the THC emissions obtained with 14 + 5 mg injection and 14 + 10 mg injection at the inlet and outlet of the DOC

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Rate of heat release and accumulated heat release of postinjection with 14 + 5 mg injection

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Comparison of the temperature of double postinjection at the inlet and outlet of DOC

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

The effect of postinjection quantity on IMEP

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Comparison of the PM emissions obtained for the different injection conditions. In the case of double postinjection, the injection timing of one postinjection was kept constant at 80 deg aTDC whereas the other postinjection was swept.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Comparison of the diesel losses obtained with different postinjections




Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In