Research Papers: Internal Combustion Engines

Study of Energy-Saving Potential of Electronically Controlled Turbocharger for Internal Combustion Engine Exhaust Gas Energy Recovery

[+] Author and Article Information
Qijun Tang

State Key Laboratory of Advanced Design and
Manufacturing for Vehicle Body,
Hunan University,
Changsha 410082, China
e-mail: tangqijun293@126.com

Jianqin Fu

State Key Laboratory of Advanced Design and
Manufacturing for Vehicle Body,
Hunan University,
Changsha 410082, China;
Key Laboratory of Low-Grade Energy Utilization
Technologies and Systems,
Ministry of Education,
Chongqing University,
Chongqing 400044, China
e-mail: fujianqinabc@163.com

Jingping Liu

State Key Laboratory of Advanced Design and
Manufacturing for Vehicle Body,
Hunan University,
Changsha 410082, China
e-mail: liujp0426@163.com

Feng Zhou

State Key Laboratory of Advanced Design and
Manufacturing for Vehicle Body,
Hunan University,
Changsha 410082, China
e-mail: emailtozf@163.com

Xiongbo Duan

State Key Laboratory of Advanced Design and
Manufacturing for Vehicle Body,
Hunan University,
Changsha 410082, China
e-mail: 490143569@qq.com

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the IC Engine Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received November 27, 2015; final manuscript received April 28, 2016; published online May 24, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Song-Charng Kong.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 138(11), 112805 (May 24, 2016) (13 pages) Paper No: GTP-15-1549; doi: 10.1115/1.4033535 History: Received November 27, 2015; Revised April 28, 2016

To promote the energy utilization efficiency of internal combustion engine, the approach of electronically controlled turbocharger (ECT) for IC engine exhaust gas energy recovery was investigated by the method of test coupling with numerical simulation. First, the tests for turbocharged gasoline engine and high-speed motor were conducted so as to provide experimental data for numerical simulation. Then, the simulation model of ECT engine was built and calibrated, and the working processes of ECT engine were simulated. The results show that the recovered exhaust gas energy by ECT increases with the decrease of by-pass valve opening due to the rising of exhaust gas mass flow rate, but the pumping loss also ascends; limited by the original engine turbocharger map, the engine working points are beyond turbine map when the by-pass valve opening increases to a certain degree. To further improve the energy recovery potential of ECT, a larger turbine was rematched, and the working processes of ECT engine under the whole operating conditions were resimulated. The results indicate that engine exhaust gas energy cannot be recovered by ECT in low-load and low-speed area due to the low exhaust gas pressure. In the effective working area, as the load and speed ascend, both the recovery efficiency of ECT and the utilization efficiency of exhaust gas energy increase, and their maximum values reach 8.4% and 18.4%, respectively. All those demonstrate that ECT can effectively recover engine exhaust gas energy.

Copyright © 2016 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Reitz, R. D. , 2013, “ Directions in Internal Combustion Engine Research,” Combust. Flame, 160(1), pp. 1–8. [CrossRef]
Durgun, O. , and Sahin, Z. , 2009, “ Theoretical Investigation of Heat balance in Direct Injection (DI) Diesel Engines for Neat Diesel Fuel and Gasoline Fumigation,” Energy Convers. Manage., 50(1), pp. 43–51. [CrossRef]
Fu, J. , Liu, J. , Xu, Z. , Ren, C. , and Deng, B. , 2013, “ A Combined Thermodynamic Cycle Based on Methanol Dissociation for IC (Internal Combustion) Engine Exhaust Heat Recovery,” Energy, 55, pp. 778–786. [CrossRef]
Simmons, R. A. , Shaver, G. M. , Tyner, W. E. , and Garimella, S. V. , 2015, “ A Benefit-Cost Assessment of New Vehicle Technologies and Fuel Economy in the U.S. Market,” Appl. Energy, 157, pp. 940–952. [CrossRef]
Huang, K. D. , Quang, K. V. , and Tseng, K. T. , 2009, “ Experimental Study of Exhaust-Gas Energy Recycling Efficiency of Hybrid Pneumatic Power System,” Int. J. Energy Res., 33(10), pp. 931–942. [CrossRef]
Zhao, D. , and Chew, Y. , 2012, “ Energy Harvesting From a Convection-Driven Rijke-Zhao Thermoacoustic Engine,” J. Appl. Phys., 112(11), p. 114507. [CrossRef]
Zhao, D. , 2013, “ Waste Thermal Energy Harvesting From a Convection-Driven Rijke–Zhao Thermo-Acoustic-Piezo System,” Energy Convers. Manage., 66, pp. 87–97. [CrossRef]
Fu, J. , Liu, J. , Feng, R. , Yang, Y. , Wang, L. , and Wang, Y. , 2013, “ Energy and Exergy Analysis on Gasoline Engine Based on Mapping Characteristics Experiment,” Appl. Energy, 102, pp. 622–630. [CrossRef]
Dolz, V. , Novella, R. , García, A. , and Sánchez, J. , 2012, “ HD Diesel Engine Equipped With a Bottoming Rankine Cycle as a Waste Heat Recovery System. Part 1: Study and Analysis of the Waste Heat Energy,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 36, pp. 269–278. [CrossRef]
Zhao, D. , Ji, C. , Teo, C. , and Li, S. , 2014, “ Performance of Small-Scale Bladeless Electromagnetic Energy Harvesters Driven by Water or Air,” Energy, 74, pp. 99–108. [CrossRef]
Wang, T. , Zhang, Y. , Zhang, J. , Shu, G. , and Peng, Z. , 2013, “ Analysis of Recoverable Exhaust Energy From a Light-Duty Gasoline Engine,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 53(2), pp. 414–419. [CrossRef]
Liang, X. , Wang, X. , Shu, G. , Wei, H. , Tian, H. , and Wang, X. , 2015, “ A Review and Selection of Engine Waste Heat Recovery Technologies Using Analytic Hierarchy Process and Grey Relational Analysis,” Int. J. Energy Res., 39(4), pp. 453–471. [CrossRef]
Xie, H. , and Yang, C. , 2013, “ Dynamic Behavior of Rankine Cycle System for Waste Heat Recovery of Heavy Duty Diesel Engines Under Driving Cycle,” Appl. Energy, 112, pp. 130–141. [CrossRef]
Macián, V. , Serrano, J. R. , Dolz, V. , and Sánchez, J. , 2013, “ Methodology to Design a Bottoming Rankine Cycle, as a Waste Energy Recovering System in Vehicles. Study in a HDD Engine,” Appl. Energy, 104, pp. 758–771. [CrossRef]
Zhao, D. , and Ega, E. , 2014, “ Energy Harvesting From Self-Sustained Aeroelastic Limit Cycle Oscillations of Rectangular Wings,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 105(10), p. 103903. [CrossRef]
Wang, Y. , Dai, C. , and Wang, S. , 2013, “ Theoretical Analysis of a Thermoelectric Generator Using Exhaust Gas of Vehicles as Heat Source,” Appl. Energy, 112, pp. 1171–1180. [CrossRef]
Bianchi, M. , and De Pascale, A. , 2011, “ Bottoming Cycles for Electric Energy Generation: Parametric Investigation of Available and Innovative Solutions for the Exploitation of Low and Medium Temperature Heat Sources,” Appl. Energy, 88(5), pp. 1500–1509. [CrossRef]
Stevens, R. J. , Weinstein, S. J. , and Koppula, K. S. , 2014, “ Theoretical Limits of Thermoelectric Power Generation From Exhaust Gases,” Appl. Energy, 133, pp. 80–88. [CrossRef]
Zhao, R. , Zhuge, W. , Zhang, Y. , Yin, Y. , Chen, Z. , and Li, Z. , 2014, “ Parametric Study of Power Turbine for Diesel Engine Waste Heat Recovery,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 67(1–2), pp. 308–319. [CrossRef]
Chiong, M. S. , Rajoo, S. , Martinez-Botas, R. F. , and Costall, A. W. , 2012, “ Engine Turbocharger Performance Prediction: One-Dimensional Modeling of a Twin Entry Turbine,” Energy Convers. Manage., 57, pp. 68–78. [CrossRef]
Silva, C. , Ross, M. , and Farias, T. , 2009, “ Analysis and Simulation of “Low-Cost” Strategies to Reduce Fuel Consumption and Emissions in Conventional Gasoline Light-Duty Vehicles,” Energy Convers. Manage., 50(2), pp. 215–222. [CrossRef]
Terdich, N. , Martinez-Botas, R. , Romagnoli, A. , and Pesiridis, A. , 2014, “ Mild Hybridization Via Electrification of the Air System: Electrically Assisted and Variable Geometry Turbocharging Impact on an Off-Road Diesel Engine,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 136(3), p. 031703. [CrossRef]
Fu, J. , Liu, J. , Yang, Y. , Ren, C. , and Zhu, G. , 2013, “ A New Approach for Exhaust Energy Recovery of Internal Combustion Engine: Steam Turbocharging,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 52(1), pp. 150–159. [CrossRef]
Katrašnik, T. , Trenc, F. , Medica, V. , and Markič, S. , 2005, “ An Analysis of Turbocharged Diesel Engine Dynamic Response Improvement by Electric Assisting Systems,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 127(4), pp. 918–926. [CrossRef]
Katrašnik, T. , Rodman, S. , Trenc, F. , Hribernik, A. , and Medica, V. , 2003, “ Improvement of the Dynamic Characteristic of an Automotive Engine by a Turbocharger Assisted by an Electric Motor,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 125(2), pp. 590–595. [CrossRef]
Lefebvre, A. , and Guilain, S. , 2003, “ Transient Response of a Turbocharged SI Engine With an Electrical Boost Pressure Supply,” SAE Paper No. 2003-01-1844.
Wei, W. , Zhuge, W. , Zhang, Y. , and He, Y. , 2010, “ Comparative Study on Electric Turbo-Compounding Systems for Gasoline Engine Exhaust Energy Recovery,” ASME Paper No. GT2010-23204.
Hofbauer, P. , 2012, “ System and Method to Control an Electronically-Controlled Turbocharger,” U.S. Patent Application 13/569,210, 2012-8-8.
Halimi, E. M. , Maloof, R. P. , and Woollenweber, W. E. , 1997, “ Turbocharging System With Integral Assisting Electric Motor and Cooling System Therefore,” U.S. Patent No. 5,605,045.
Huang, R. , Zhang, W. L. , Jiang, Y. L. , Duan, X. L. , and Chen, F. Q. , 2013, “ Electric Turbocharger,” CN Patent No. App CN 103061869 A.
Hippen, W. , Laimboeck, F. , and Garrard, T. , 2011, “ Cooling an Electrically Controlled Turbocharger,” U.S. Patent 7,946,118.
Zhao, D. , Winward, E. , Yang, Z. , Rutledge, J. , and Stobart, R. , 2016, “ Control-Oriented Dynamics Analysis for Electrified Turbocharged Diesel Engines,” SAE Paper No. 2016-01-0617.
Ibaraki, S. , Yamashita, Y. , Sumida, K. , Ogita, H. , and Jinnai, Y. , 2006, “ Development of the ‘Hybrid Turbo,’ an Electrically Assisted Turbocharger,” Mitsubishi Heavy Ind. Tech. Rev., 43(3), pp. 36–40.
Pfister, P. D. , and Perriard, Y. , 2008, “ A 200,000 rpm, 2 kW Slotless Permanent Magnet Motor,” International Conference on Electrical Machines and Systems (ICEMS 2008), Wuhan, China, Oct. 17–20, pp. 3054–3059.
Barrans, S. , Al-Ani, M. , Carter, J. , and Ndengeya, T. , 2016, “ Mechanical Design of Rotors for Permanent Magnet High Speed Electric Motors for Turbocharger Applications,” 7th International Conference on Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering (ICMAE 2016), London, July 18–22.
Tang, Q. , Fu, J. , Liu, J. , Boulet, B. , Tan, L. , and Zhao, Z. , 2016, “ Comparison and Analysis of the Effects of Various Improved Turbocharging Approaches on Gasoline Engine Transient Performances,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 93, pp. 797–812. [CrossRef]
Liu, J. , Fu, J. , Feng, K. , Zhao, Z. , and Wang, S. , 2011, “ A Study on the Energy Flow of Diesel Engine Turbocharged System,” J. Hunan. Univ., 38(5), pp. 48–53 (in Chinese).


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of EGT and ECT: (a) EGT and (b) ECT

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

The schematic diagram for engine bench testing

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Performances' parameters of test engine: (a) pressure, (b) PMEP, (c) temperature, (d) wastegate mass flow ratio, (e) exhaust gas energy, and (f) utilization efficiency of exhaust gas energy

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

The tested performances of motor: (a) power versus motor model, (b) efficiency versus motor model, (c) power versus generator model, and (d) efficiency versus generator model

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

The GT-Power model of exhaust gas turbocharged engine

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

The maps of compressor and turbine data: (a) the compressor map and (b) the turbine map

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

The calibration of GT-Power model (in-cylinder pressure): (a) in-cylinder pressure, 1000 r/min, (b) in-cylinder pressure, 2000 r/min, (c) in-cylinder pressure, 3000 r/min, (d) in-cylinder pressure, 4000 r/min, (e) in-cylinder pressure, 5000 r/min, and (f) In-cylinder pressure, 5200 r/min

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

The calibration of GT-Power steady-state model (full load): (a) torque, (b) brake efficiency, (c) exhaust energy, and (d) turbine power

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

The simulation result of ECT engine at 5000 r/min, full load: (a) ECT output power, (b) engine power, (c) pressure, (d) engine PMEP, (e) improvement of ECT engine efficiency, and (f) ECT engine brake efficiency

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

The recovered power from ECT: (a) power, (b) utilization efficiency of exhaust gas energy, (c) PMEP, and (d) brake efficiency

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

The recovered power of ECT under part load: (a) ECT output power, (b) engine power, (c) pressure, (d) PMEP, (e) improvement of brake efficiency, and (f) engine brake efficiency

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

The comparison of different turbochargers: (a) torque, (b) brake efficiency, (c) turbine inlet pressure, and (d) PMEP

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

ECT engine performance at 5000 r/min: (a) ECT power, (b) PMEP, (c) utilization efficiency of exhaust gas energy, and (d) brake efficiency

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

The distribution of exhaust gas energy at 5000 r/min part load: (a) BMEP = 4.9 bar, (b) BMEP = 10.1 bar, (c) BMEP = 15.9 bar, and (d) BMEP = 16.4 bar

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

ECT engine performances at low speed: (a) torque, (b) PMEP, (c) pressure, and (d) brake efficiency

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

ECT engine performances in the whole map: (a) ECT power, (b) the recovery efficiency of ECT, (c) turbine outlet pressure, and (d) turbine outlet temperature



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In