0
Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Turbomachinery

Enhanced Experimental Testing of New Erosion-Resistant Compressor Blade Coatings

[+] Author and Article Information
Sean G. Leithead

Department of Mechanical and
Aerospace Engineering,
Royal Military College of Canada,
Kingston, ON K7K 7B4, Canada
e-mail: sean.leithead@rmc.ca

William D. E. Allan

Department of Mechanical and
Aerospace Engineering,
Royal Military College of Canada,
Kingston, ON K7K 7B4, Canada
e-mail: billy.allan@rmc.ca

Linruo Zhao

Institute for Aerospace Research,
National Research Council of Canada,
Ottawa, ON K1A 0R6, Canada
e-mail: linruo.zhao@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca

Qi Yang

Institute for Aerospace Research,
National Research Council of Canada,
Ottawa, ON K1A 0R6, Canada
e-mail: qi.yang@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Turbomachinery Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received April 20, 2016; final manuscript received May 6, 2016; published online June 1, 2016. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 138(11), 112603 (Jun 01, 2016) (12 pages) Paper No: GTP-16-1159; doi: 10.1115/1.4033580 History: Received April 20, 2016; Revised May 06, 2016

Performance differences between bare 17-4PH steel V103 profile (NACA 6505 with rounded leading edge (LE) and trailing edge (TE)) gas turbine engine axial compressor blades, and those coated with either a chromium-aluminum-titanium nitride (CrAlTiN) or a titanium-aluminum nitride (TixAl1−xN) erosion-resistant coating were tested. A coating thickness of 16 μm was used, based on experimental results in the literature. Coatings were applied using arc physical vapor deposition at the National Research Council of Canada (NRC). All blades were tested under identical operating conditions in the Royal Military College of Canada (RMC) turbomachinery erosion rig. Based on a realism factor (RF) defined by the authors, this experimental rig was determined to provide the best known approximation to actual compressor blade erosion in aircraft gas turbine engine axial compressors. An average brown-out erosive media concentration of 4.9g/m3ofair was used during testing. An overall defined Leithead–Allan–Zhao (LAZ) score metric, based on mass and blade dimension changes, compared the erosion-resistant performance of the bare and coated blades. Blade surface roughness data were also obtained. Based on the LAZ Score, CrAlTiN-coated blades performed at least 79% better than bare blades, and TixAl1−xN-coated blades performed at least 93% better than bare blades. The TixAl1−xN-coated blades performed at least 33% better than the CrAlTiN-coated blades. Extrapolation of results predicted that a V-22 Osprey tiltrotor military aircraft, for example, could fly up to 79 more missions with TixAl1−xN-coated compressor blades in brown-out sand concentrations than with uncoated blades.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2016 by ASME
Topics: Erosion , Blades , Testing , Sands
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Dunn, M. , Padova, C. , Moller, J. , and Adams, R. , 1987, “ Performance Deterioration of a Turbofan and a Turbojet Engine Upon Exposure to a Dust Environment,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 109(3), pp. 336–343. [CrossRef]
Immarigeon, J. , Chow, D. , Parmeswaran, V. , Au, P. , Saari, H. , and Koul, A. K. , 1997, “ Erosion Testing of Coatings for Aero Engine Compressor Components,” Adv. Perform. Mater., 4(4), pp. 371–388. [CrossRef]
Gorokhovsky, V. , Bowman, C. , Wallace, J. , Van Vorous, D. , O'Keefe, J. , Champagne, V. , Pepi, M. , and Tabakoff, W. , 2009, “ LAFAD Hard Ceramic and Cermet Coatings for Erosion Protection of Turbomachinery Components,” ASME Paper No. GT2009-59391.
Muboyadzhyan, S. , 2009, “ Erosion-Resistant Coatings for Gas Turbine Compressor Blades,” Russ. Metall., 3, pp. 183–196. [CrossRef]
Klein, M. , and Simpson, G. , 2004, “ The Development of Innovative Methods for Erosion Testing a Russian Coating on GE T64 Gas Turbine Engine Compressor Blades,” ASME Paper No. GT2004-54336.
Tabakoff, W. , and Mason, R. , 2007, “ Dust-Induced Deterioration of Compressor First Stage Blades in Supersonic Cascade Erosion Wind Tunnel,” Int. J. Turbo Jet Engines, 24(43), pp. 85–92.
Balan, C. , and Tabakoff, W. , 1984, “ Axial Flow Compressor Performance Deterioration,” 20th AIAA/SAE/ASME Joint Propulsion Conference, Cincinnati, OH, June 11–13, AIAA Paper No. 1984-1208.
Ghenaiet, A. , Tan, S. , and Elder, R. , 2004, “ Experimental Investigation of Axial Fan Erosion and Performance Degradation,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part A, 218(6), pp. 437–450. [CrossRef]
Leithead, S. G. , Allan, W. D. , and Zhao, L. , 2015, “ Performance Metrics and Experimental Testing of Erosion-Resistant Compressor Blade Coatings,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 137(5), p. 052101. [CrossRef]
Leithead, S. , 2013, “ A Durability Test Rig and Methodology for Erosion-Resistant Blade Coatings in Turbomachinery,” M.S. thesis, Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, ON, Canada.
Treager, I. E. , ed., 1996, Aircraft Gas Turbine Engine Technology, 3rd ed., McGraw-Hill, New York.
Davison, C. R. , Chalmers, J. , and Jackson, N. , 2010, “ Particle Concentration Ranges for Helicopter Engine Ingestion Study With Correlations to Visibility and Engine Performance,” National Research Council Canada, Institute for Aerospace Research, Ottawa, ON, Canada, Report No. LTR-GTL-2010-0031.
Cowherd, C. , 2007, “ Sandblaster 2 Support of See-Through Technologies for Particulate Brownout,” Midwest Research Institute, Kansas City, MO, Report No. 110565.1.005.
Sundararajan, G. , and Roy, M. , 1997, “ Solid Particle Erosion Behaviour of Metallic Materials at Room and Elevated Temperatures,” Tribol. Int., 30(5), pp. 339–359. [CrossRef]
Hilgenfield, L. , and Pfitzner, M. , 2004, “ Unsteady Boundary Layer Development Due to Wake Passing Effects on a Highly Loaded Linear Compressor Cascade,” ASME J. Turbomach., 126(4), pp. 493–500. [CrossRef]
Walsh, P. P. , and Fletcher, P. , 2004, Gas Turbine Performance, 2nd ed., ASME Press, New York.
Cumpsty, N. , 1989, Compressor Aerodynamics, Longman Scientific & Technical, Harlow, Essex, UK.
Mattingly, J. D. , 2006, Elements of Propulsion: Gas Turbines and Rockets, AIAA, Blacksburg, VA.
Callister, W. D. , and Rethwisch, D. G. , 2010, Materials Science and Engineering: An Introduction, 8th ed., Wiley, Hoboken, NJ.
Leithead, S. , and Yang, Q. , 2015, E-Mail Conversation With NRC Concerning Developed Coating Densities, Dec. 12.
Abernethy, R. , Powell, B. D. , Colbert, D. L. , Sanders, D. G. , and Thompson, J. W. Jr. , 1973, “Uncertainty in Gas Turbine Measurements,” Arnold Engineering Development Center Air Force Systems Command, Arnold Air Force Station, TN.
Bell, S. , 1999, “ A Beginner's Guide to Uncertainty of Measurement,” National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, UK, accessed Jan. 15, 2013, http://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/gcos/documents/gruanmanuals/UK_NPL/mgpg11.pdf
Elmstrom, M. E. , Millsaps, K. T. , Hobson, G. V. , and Patterson, J. S. , 2011, “ Impact of Nonuniform Leading Edge Coatings on the Aerodynamic Performance of Compressor Airfoils,” ASME J. Turbomach., 133(4), p. 041004. [CrossRef]
Lou, W. , and Hourmouziadis, J. , 2000, “ Separation Bubbles Under Steady and Periodic-Unsteady Main Flow Conditions,” ASME J. Turbomach., 122(4), pp. 634–643. [CrossRef]
Aungier, R. H. , 2003, Axial-Flow Compressors, ASME Press, New York.
Tang, G. , Simpson, R. , and Tian, Q. , 2005, “ Gap Size Effect on Tip-Gap Turbulent Flow Structure,” AIAA Paper No. 2005-4024.
Sweetman, B. , 2015, “ Engine Trouble: V-22 Mishap Leads to Tight Flight Restrictions,” Aviat. Week Space Technol., 177(21), pp. 35–36.
Back, S. , Hobson, G. V. , Song, S. , and Millsaps, K. T. , 2012, “ Effects of Reynolds Number and Surface Roughness Magnitude and Location on Compressor Cascade Performance,” ASME J. Turbomach., 134(5), p. 051013. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Modified RMC turbomachinery erosion rig schematic

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

(a) Top view of coated and uncoated test blades and (b) slight overhead front view

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Upstream view of the test blades installed in a rainbow arrangement in the modified RMC turbomachinery erosion rig

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Section-view of the modified RMC turbomachinery erosion rig test section (not all blade assemblies installed and retaining rings not installed)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Bare blade test assembly after airflow test (at MaLE = 0.51) without garnet, painted with oil-paraffin solution: (a) SS view of a test blade and (b) PS view of a test blade (assembly was rotated 180 deg for this photo)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Top view of bare blade test assembly after 1 hr of erosion (at MaLE = 0.49 and an average sand concentration of 5.5 g/m3 of air): (a) original photo and (b) annotated version of the same photo

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Bare blade tip: (a) before erosion and (b) after 1 hr of erosion (at MaLE = 0.49 and an average sand concentration of 5.5 g/m3 of air)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

CrAlTiN-coated blade PS front-half: (a) before erosion and (b) after 1 hr of erosion (atMaLE = 0.49 and an average sand concentration of 5.5 g/m3 of air)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

TixAl1−xN-coated blade PS front-half: (a) before erosion and (b) after 1 hr of erosion (atMaLE = 0.49 and an average sand concentration of 5.5 g/m3 of air)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

LEs for all ten TixAl1−xN-coated test blades after 1 hr of erosion—third image from the right is a zoom-in of the eroded LE in Fig. 9(b) (blade #01TL on far left and #05TR on far right) (at MaLE = 0.49 and an average sand concentration of 5.5 g/m3 of air)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Comparisons of blade LE and TE thickness after 1 hr of erosion: (a) bare LE, (b) CrAlTiN-coated LE, (c) TixAl1−xN-coated LE, (d) bare TE, (e) CrAlTiN-coated TE, and (f) TixAl1−xN-coated TE (at MaLE = 0.49 and an average sand concentration of 5.5 g/m3 of air)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Average test blade percent mass-loss due to garnet erosion in the modified RMC turbomachinery erosion rig

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In