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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Turbomachinery

Enhanced Experimental Testing of New Erosion-Resistant Compressor Blade Coatings

[+] Author and Article Information
Sean G. Leithead

Department of Mechanical and
Aerospace Engineering,
Royal Military College of Canada,
Kingston, ON K7K 7B4, Canada
e-mail: sean.leithead@rmc.ca

William D. E. Allan

Department of Mechanical and
Aerospace Engineering,
Royal Military College of Canada,
Kingston, ON K7K 7B4, Canada
e-mail: billy.allan@rmc.ca

Linruo Zhao

Institute for Aerospace Research,
National Research Council of Canada,
Ottawa, ON K1A 0R6, Canada
e-mail: linruo.zhao@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca

Qi Yang

Institute for Aerospace Research,
National Research Council of Canada,
Ottawa, ON K1A 0R6, Canada
e-mail: qi.yang@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Turbomachinery Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received April 20, 2016; final manuscript received May 6, 2016; published online June 1, 2016. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 138(11), 112603 (Jun 01, 2016) (12 pages) Paper No: GTP-16-1159; doi: 10.1115/1.4033580 History: Received April 20, 2016; Revised May 06, 2016

Performance differences between bare 17-4PH steel V103 profile (NACA 6505 with rounded leading edge (LE) and trailing edge (TE)) gas turbine engine axial compressor blades, and those coated with either a chromium-aluminum-titanium nitride (CrAlTiN) or a titanium-aluminum nitride (TixAl1−xN) erosion-resistant coating were tested. A coating thickness of 16 μm was used, based on experimental results in the literature. Coatings were applied using arc physical vapor deposition at the National Research Council of Canada (NRC). All blades were tested under identical operating conditions in the Royal Military College of Canada (RMC) turbomachinery erosion rig. Based on a realism factor (RF) defined by the authors, this experimental rig was determined to provide the best known approximation to actual compressor blade erosion in aircraft gas turbine engine axial compressors. An average brown-out erosive media concentration of 4.9g/m3ofair was used during testing. An overall defined Leithead–Allan–Zhao (LAZ) score metric, based on mass and blade dimension changes, compared the erosion-resistant performance of the bare and coated blades. Blade surface roughness data were also obtained. Based on the LAZ Score, CrAlTiN-coated blades performed at least 79% better than bare blades, and TixAl1−xN-coated blades performed at least 93% better than bare blades. The TixAl1−xN-coated blades performed at least 33% better than the CrAlTiN-coated blades. Extrapolation of results predicted that a V-22 Osprey tiltrotor military aircraft, for example, could fly up to 79 more missions with TixAl1−xN-coated compressor blades in brown-out sand concentrations than with uncoated blades.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
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Copyright © 2016 by ASME
Topics: Erosion , Blades , Testing , Sands
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References

Figures

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Fig. 1

Modified RMC turbomachinery erosion rig schematic

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Fig. 2

(a) Top view of coated and uncoated test blades and (b) slight overhead front view

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Fig. 3

Upstream view of the test blades installed in a rainbow arrangement in the modified RMC turbomachinery erosion rig

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Fig. 4

Section-view of the modified RMC turbomachinery erosion rig test section (not all blade assemblies installed and retaining rings not installed)

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Fig. 5

Bare blade test assembly after airflow test (at MaLE = 0.51) without garnet, painted with oil-paraffin solution: (a) SS view of a test blade and (b) PS view of a test blade (assembly was rotated 180 deg for this photo)

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Fig. 6

Top view of bare blade test assembly after 1 hr of erosion (at MaLE = 0.49 and an average sand concentration of 5.5 g/m3 of air): (a) original photo and (b) annotated version of the same photo

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Fig. 7

Bare blade tip: (a) before erosion and (b) after 1 hr of erosion (at MaLE = 0.49 and an average sand concentration of 5.5 g/m3 of air)

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Fig. 8

CrAlTiN-coated blade PS front-half: (a) before erosion and (b) after 1 hr of erosion (atMaLE = 0.49 and an average sand concentration of 5.5 g/m3 of air)

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Fig. 9

TixAl1−xN-coated blade PS front-half: (a) before erosion and (b) after 1 hr of erosion (atMaLE = 0.49 and an average sand concentration of 5.5 g/m3 of air)

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Fig. 10

LEs for all ten TixAl1−xN-coated test blades after 1 hr of erosion—third image from the right is a zoom-in of the eroded LE in Fig. 9(b) (blade #01TL on far left and #05TR on far right) (at MaLE = 0.49 and an average sand concentration of 5.5 g/m3 of air)

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Fig. 11

Comparisons of blade LE and TE thickness after 1 hr of erosion: (a) bare LE, (b) CrAlTiN-coated LE, (c) TixAl1−xN-coated LE, (d) bare TE, (e) CrAlTiN-coated TE, and (f) TixAl1−xN-coated TE (at MaLE = 0.49 and an average sand concentration of 5.5 g/m3 of air)

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Fig. 12

Average test blade percent mass-loss due to garnet erosion in the modified RMC turbomachinery erosion rig

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