0
Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Aircraft Engine

Comparison of the Sensitivity to Foreign Particle Ingestion of the GE-F101 and P/W-F100 Engines to Modern Aircraft Engines

[+] Author and Article Information
Christopher R. Cosher

Gas Turbine Laboratory,
The Ohio State University,
Columbus, OH 43235
e-mail: cosher.1@osu.edu

Michael G. Dunn

Gas Turbine Laboratory,
The Ohio State University,
Columbus, OH 43235
e-mail: dunn.129@osu.edu

Contributed by the Aircraft Engine Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received June 20, 2016; final manuscript received June 24, 2016; published online August 2, 2016. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 138(12), 121201 (Aug 02, 2016) (9 pages) Paper No: GTP-16-1251; doi: 10.1115/1.4034021 History: Received June 20, 2016; Revised June 24, 2016

The work described in this paper utilizes dust ingestion experimental results obtained using three Pratt/Whitney F-100, two GE F-101, one Pratt/Whitney J-57, and three Pratt/Whitney TF-33 military engines and two different combustor rigs (one utilizing a sector of the Pratt/Whitney F-100 annular combustor and the other utilizing an Allison T-56 can combustor) to scale results so that these previous experiments can be used to approximate the response of more current aircraft engines to foreign particle ingestion. Modern engines experience a combination of compression system erosion and material deposition in the combustor and on the high-pressure turbine (HPT) inlet vanes (and rotor blade complications) whereas the older engines (P/W TF-33 and J-57) experienced primarily an erosion problem as a result of the lower turbine inlet temperatures (TIT). As part of the results presented in this paper, the scaled estimates of material accumulation and component degradation have been compared to documented in-flight ash encounters, specifically KLM Flight 867, British Airways Flight 009, Qantas Flight 370, and an NASA scientific research flight. The results of the study allow one to make estimates of the time to initial issues for the RR RB-211, the GE CF-6, the GE/Snecma CFM-56, and the P/W JT9-D engines encountering dust clouds of specific concentration. Current engine certification procedures do not require any specific test condition that would approach the engine issues described in this paper.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2016 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Dunn, M. G. , 1990, “ Performance Deterioration of an Operational F100 Turbofan Engine Upon Exposure to a Simulated Nuclear Dust Environment,” Calspan Advanced Technology Center, Buffalo, NY, Technical Report No. DNA-TR-90-72-V1.
Dunn, M. G. , 1990, “ Performance Deterioration of a Second F100 Turbofan Engine Upon Exposure to a Simulated Nuclear Dust Environment,” Calspan Advanced Technology Center, Buffalo, NY, Technical Report No. DNA-TR-90-72-V3.
Baran, A. J. , and Dunn, M. G. , 1994, “ The Response of a Third F100-PW-100 Engine to a ‘Most Probable’ Dust Environment,” Calspan Advanced Technology Center, Buffalo, NY, Technical Report No. DNA-TR-94-110.
Baran, A. J. , and Dunn, M. G. , 1992, “ The Response of a YF101-GE-100 Engine to a ‘Most Probable’ Nuclear Dust Environment,” Calspan Advanced Technology Center, Buffalo, NY, Technical Report No. DNA-TR-92-121.
Baran, A. J. , and Dunn, M. G. , 1994, “ The Response of a Second YF101-GE-100 Engine to a Dust-Laden Environment,” Calspan Advanced Technology Center, Buffalo, NY, Technical Report No. DNA-TR-94-24.
Dunn, M. G. , Padova, C. , and Moller, J. C. , 1986, “ Performance Deterioration of Turbojet Engine Upon Exposure to a Dust Environment,” Calspan Advanced Technology Center, Buffalo, NY, Technical Report No. DNA-TR-86-62-V2.
Dunn, M. G. , and Padova, C. , 1986, “ Deterioration of a TF33 Turbofan When Exposed to a Scoria-Laden Dust Environment,” Calspan Advanced Technology Center, Buffalo, NY, Technical Report No. DNA-TR-86-62-V3.
Dunn, M. G. , Padova, C. , and Moller, J. C. , 1986, “ Performance Deterioration of an Operational TF-33 Turbofan Engine Upon Exposure to a Simulated Nuclear Dust Environment,” Calspan Advanced Technology Center, Buffalo, NY, Report No. 7170-A-2.
Dunn, M. G. , 2012, “ Operation of Gas Turbine Engines in an Environment Contaminated with Volcanic Ash,” ASME J. Turbomach., 134(5), p. 051001. [CrossRef]
Dunn, M. G. , Padova, C. , Moller, J. E. , and Adams, R. M. , 1987, “ Performance Deterioration of a Turbofan and a Turbojet Engine Upon Exposure to a Dust Environment,” ASME J. Gas Turbines Power, 109(3), pp. 336–343. [CrossRef]
Weaver, M. M. , Dunn, M. G. , and Heffernan, T. , 1996, “ Experimental Determination of the Influence of Foreign Particle Ingestion on the Behavior of Hot-Section Components Including Lamilloy,” ASME Paper No. 96-GT-337.
Kim, J. , Dunn, M. G. , and Baran, A. J. , 1991, “ The "Most Probable" Dust Blend and Its Response in the F-100 Hot Section Test System (HSTS),” Calspan Advanced Technology Center, Buffalo, NY, Technical Report No. DNA-TR-91-160.
Kim, J. , Baran, A. J. , and Dunn, M. G. , 1991, “ Design and Construction of a F-100 Engine Hot-Section Test System (HSTS) for Dust Phenomenology Testing,” Calspan Advanced Technology Center, Buffalo, NY, Technical Report No. DNA-TR-91-159.
Kim, J. , Dunn, M. G. , Baran, A. J. , Wade, D. P. , and Tremba, E. L. , 1993, “ Deposition of Volcanic Materials in the Hot Sections of Two Gas Turbine Engines,” ASME J. Gas Turbines Power, 115(3), pp. 641–651. [CrossRef]
Moller, J. C. , and Dunn, M. G. , 1990, “ Dust and Smoke Phenomology Testing in a Gas Turbine Hot Section Simulator,” Calspan Advanced Technology Center, Buffalo, NY, Technical Report No. DNA-TR-90-72-V2.
Kueppers, U. , Cimarelli, C. , Hess, K.-U. , Taddeucci, J. , Wadsworth, F. B. , and Dingwell, D. B. , 2014, “ The Thermal Stability of Eyjafjallajokull Ash Versus Turbine Ingestion Test Sands,” J. Appl. Volcanol., 3(1), p. 4. [CrossRef]
Campbell, E. E. , 1990, “ Volcanic Ash,” 1990 Flight Operations Symposium, Seattle, WA.
Boeing, 1992, “ Customer, Training, and, Flight, Operations, and Support: ‘Volcanic Ash Avoidance, Flight Crew Briefing’,” Customer Training and Flight Operations, Boeing Co., Chicago, IL.
Baran, A. J. , and Dunn, M. G. , 1996, “ The Response of a Third F100-PW-100 Engine to a ‘Most Probable’ Nuclear Dust Environment,” Calspan Advanced Technology Center, Buffalo, NY, Technical Report No. DNA-TR-94-110.
Przedpelski, Z. J. , 1990, “ Report of Powerplant Investigation CF6-80C2B1F—Volcanic Ash Ingestion: Royal Dutch Airlines B747-400, No. PH-BFC Anchorage, Alaska, 15 December 1989,” Report No. R90AEB250.
Padova, C. , Dunn, M. G. , and Moller, J. C. , 1987, “ Dust Phenomenology Testing in the Hot-Section Simulator of an Allison T56 Gas Turbine,” Calspan Advanced Technology Center, Buffalo, NY, Technical Report No. DNA-TR-87-71.
Moller, J. C. , and Dunn, M. G. , 1989, “ Dust and Smoke Phenomenology Testing in a Gas Turbine Hot Section Simulator,” Calspan Advanced Technology Center, Buffalo, NY, Technical Report No. DNA-TR-90-72-V2.
Casadevall, T. J. , 1994, “ The 1989-1990 Eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska: Impacts on Aircraft Operations,” J. Volcanol. Geothermal Res., 62(1–4), pp. 301–316. [CrossRef]
Guffanti, M. , Casadevall, T. J. , and Budding, K. , 2010, “ Encounters of Aircraft With Volcanic Ash Clouds: A Compilation of Known Incidents, 1953–2009,” United States Geological Survey, Reston, VA, Data Series 545, Version 1.
Moody, E. , 1988, “ Discussion of BA009 Event with M. Dunn,” personal communication.
Martin, E. W. , and Napier, J. , 1985, “ Boeing 747-238B COMBI Volcanic Cloud Encounter,” Quantas Airline FSR.211/QF/RR/001.
Casadevall, T. J. , 1982, “ Singapore Airlines Incident Report,” personal communication.
Grindle, T. J. , and Burcham, F. W. , 2003, “ Engine Damage to a NASA DC-8-72 Airplane From a High-Altitude Encounter With a Diffuse Volcanic Ash Cloud,” NASA Dryden Flight Research Center; Edwards, CA, Report No. NASA/TM-2003-212030.
Sliff, R. S. , 1970, “ Turbine Engine Foreign Object Ingestion and Rotor Blade Containment Type Certification Procedures,” Federal Aviation Administration, Washington, DC, Report No. AC 33-1 B.
DoD, 1973, “  Military Specification: General Specifications for Engines, Aircraft, Turbojet and Turbofan,” Department of Defense, Standard No. MIL-E-5007D.
Powder Technology, 2014, “ Material Safety Data Sheet,” Powder Technology, Inc., Arden Hills, MN.
Jugder, D. , Shinoda, M. , Sugimoto, N. , Matsui, I. , Nishikawa, M. , Park, S.-U. , Chun, Y.-S. , and Park, M.-S. , 2011, “ Spatial and Temporal Variations of Dust Concentrations in the Gobi Desert of Mongolia,” Global Planet. Change, 78(1–2), pp. 14–22. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

TIT ranges versus bypass ratio for several engines; Calspan experiment engines (dashed, orange box) and highlighted commercial engines (solid, blue box)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

SEM (top, left) and elemental composition (top, right) for Twin Mountain black scoria; SEM (bottom, left) and elemental composition (bottom, right) for Eyjafjallajökull ash

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Increase in BPR with respect to total dust ingested for P/W F-100 engine (S/N 470071)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

St. Elmo's glow at face of GE F-101 engine viewed from approximately 10 m

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Estimated time to potential surge (red line) for KLM Flight 867 with error range (black lines) based on variations in OF components

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Estimated time to potential surge (red line) for BA Flight 009 with error range (black lines)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Comparison of deposition on HPT vane row for BA Flight 009 (left) and Qantas Flight 370 (right)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Estimated time to potential surge (red line) for Pratt/Whitney JT9-D engine with error range (black lines)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Comparison of HPT NGV deposits for F-100 in the laboratory (left) and JT9-D following flight encounter with volcanic ash (right)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Estimated time to potential surge (dashed red line) for GE CFM-56 engine with error range (black lines) for concentrations ranging from 40 mg/m3 to 500 mg/m3

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Estimated time to potential surge (red line) for CFM-56 engine with error range (black lines) at threshold for St. Elmo’s glow visibility, a dust concentration of 40 mg/m3

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Estimated time to potential surge if ARD at 25 mg/m3 (low visibility) were used as foreign material for ingestion testing of commercial engines in this study

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In