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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Flow Field Characterization at the Outlet of a Lean Burn Single-Sector Combustor by Laser-Optical Methods

[+] Author and Article Information
Michael Schroll

Institute of Propulsion Technology,
DLR—German Aerospace Center,
Linder Hoehe,
Cologne 51147, Germany
e-mail: Michael.Schroll@dlr.de

Ulrich Doll

Institute of Propulsion Technology,
DLR—German Aerospace Center,
Linder Hoehe,
Cologne 51147, Germany
e-mail: Ulrich.Doll@dlr.de

Guido Stockhausen

DLR—German Aerospace Center,
Institute of Propulsion Technology,
Linder Hoehe,
Cologne 51147, Germany
e-mail: Guido.Stockhausen@dlr.de

Ulrich Meier

DLR—German Aerospace Center,
Institute of Propulsion Technology,
Linder Hoehe,
Cologne 51147, Germany
e-mail: Ulrich.Meier@dlr.de

Chris Willert

Institute of Propulsion Technology,
DLR—German Aerospace Center,
Linder Hoehe,
Cologne 51147, Germany
e-mail: Chris.Willert@dlr.de

Christoph Hassa

Institute of Propulsion Technology,
DLR—German Aerospace Center,
Linder Hoehe,
Cologne 51147, Germany
e-mail: Christoph.Hassa@dlr.de

Imon Bagchi

Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG,
Eschenweg 11, Dahlewitz,
Blankenfelde-Mahlow 15827, Germany
e-mail: Imon-Kalyan.Bagchi@rolls-royce.com

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received June 21, 2016; final manuscript received June 24, 2016; published online August 16, 2016. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 139(1), 011503 (Aug 16, 2016) (9 pages) Paper No: GTP-16-1258; doi: 10.1115/1.4034040 History: Received June 21, 2016; Revised June 24, 2016

High overall pressure ratio (OPR) engine cycles for reduced NOx emissions will generate new aggravated requirements and boundary conditions by implementing low emission combustion technologies into advanced engine architectures. Lean burn combustion systems will have a significant impact on the temperature and velocity traverse at the combustor exit. Lean burn fuel injectors dominate the combustor exit conditions. This is due to the fact that they pass a majority of the total combustor flow, and to the lack of mixing jets like in a conventional combustor. With the transition to high-pressure engines, it is essential to fully understand and determine the high energetic interface between combustor and turbine to avoid excessive cooling. Velocity distributions and their fluctuations at the combustor exit for lean burn are of special interest as they can influence the efficiency and capacity of the turbine. A lean burn single-sector combustor was designed and built at DLR, providing optical access to its rectangular exit section. The sector was operated with a fuel-staged lean burn injector. Measurements were performed under idle and cruise operating conditions. Two velocity measurement techniques were used in the demanding environment of highly luminous flames under elevated pressures: particle image velocimetry (PIV) and filtered Rayleigh scattering (FRS). The latter was used for the first time in an aero-engine combustor environment. In addition to a conventional signal detection arrangement, FRS was also applied with an endoscope for signal collection, to assess its practicality for a potential future application in a full annular combustor with restricted optical access.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic view of the OCORE test section with endoscope (left) and photograph during staged operation in conventional optical setup (right); origin of the coordinate system is located on injector axis and heat shield

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Fig. 2

Optical setups for horizontal PIV and extracted cross-sectional slice (a), FRS with endoscopic detection (b), and FRS with conventional detection (c)

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Fig. 3

PIV vector flow field of test point 1 (pilot-only—low power) in a rectangular 9 × 13 grid, view orientation perspective in flow direction

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Fig. 4

Cross-sectional flow field of test point 1 (pilot-only—low power), vectors v and w, and contour color u, view orientation in the flow direction

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Fig. 5

Cross-sectional flow (field similar to Fig. 4) of test point 2 (fuel-staged—intermediate power)

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Fig. 6

A 3C-turbulence of test point 1 (pilot-only—low power) vectors v and w, and contour color Tu, view orientation in flow direction

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Fig. 7

A 3C-turbulence (similar to Fig. 6) of test point 2 (fuel-staged—intermediate power)

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Fig. 8

PDF of crosswise velocity component w (according to z-direction) at the height z/h 50 (black bars) and 0.4 (green bars) at the position x/x0 51 and y/h 50 (dashed-red line) for test point 2 (fuel-staged—intermediate power)

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Fig. 9

Contour plot of normalized frequency for all the PDFs along the height z at the position x/x0 51 and y/h 50 for test point 2 (fuel-staged—intermediate power)

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Fig. 10

(Top) Narrow bandwidth light scattered from large particles (Mie) or surfaces (geometric) is filtered, while spectral shares of the Rayleigh scattering pass through. (Bottom) FSM: The laser is modulated multiple times in frequency along the iodine filter's transmission curve.

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Fig. 11

Principle setup for conventional (orange) and endoscopic FRS (red)

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Fig. 12

A 3D sketch of the combustor exit's cross section observed in downstream direction with laser beam positions for conventional (orange) and endoscopic setup (red)

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Fig. 13

(Top) from the upper left, the endoscope (black line) observes the combustor exit with the laser propagating along the y-axis. (Bottom) cooling jacket for fiber endoscope.

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Fig. 14

Scattering geometries for conventional (left) and endoscopic (right) FRS measurements

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Fig. 15

Comparison of PIV (left, top) and conventional FRS (right, top) Doppler shift maps for test point 2. (Bottom) vertical profiles at y/h 50.4 (left), 0 (middle), and 20.4 (right) for PIV (black) and FRS (red).

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Fig. 16

Comparison of PIV (black) and endoscopic FRS (red) horizontal Doppler shift profiles for test points 1 (top) and 2 (bottom) at z/h 50.2 (left), 0 (middle), and 20.4 (right)

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