0
Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Electric Power

Investigation of Different Operation Strategies to Provide Balance Energy With an Industrial Combined Heat and Power Plant Using Dynamic Simulation

[+] Author and Article Information
Steffen Kahlert

Institute for Energy Systems,
Technical University of Munich,
Boltzmannstr. 15,
Garching bei München 85748, Germany
e-mail: steffen.kahlert@tum.de

Hartmut Spliethoff

Institute for Energy Systems/ZAE Bayern,
Technical University of Munich,
Boltzmannstr. 15,
Garching bei München 85748, Germany
e-mail: spliethoff@tum.de

Contributed by the Electric Power Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received June 2, 2016; final manuscript received June 27, 2016; published online August 16, 2016. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 139(1), 011801 (Aug 16, 2016) (8 pages) Paper No: GTP-16-1202; doi: 10.1115/1.4034184 History: Received June 02, 2016; Revised June 27, 2016

Intermittency of renewable electricity generation poses a challenge to thermal power plants. While power plants in the public sector see a decrease in operating hours, the utilization of industrial power plants is mostly unaffected because process steam has to be provided. This study investigates to what extent the load of a combined heat and power (CHP) plant can be reduced while maintaining a reliable process steam supply. A dynamic process model of an industrial combined CHP plant is developed and validated with operational data. The model contains a gas turbine (GT), a single pressure heat recovery system generator (HRSG) with supplementary firing and an extraction condensing steam turbine. Technical limitations of the gas turbine, the supplementary firing, and the steam turbine constrain the load range of the plant. In consideration of these constraints, different operation strategies are performed at variable loads using dynamic simulation. A simulation study shows feasible load changes in 5 min for provision of secondary control reserve (SCR). The load change capability of the combined cycle plant under consideration is mainly restricted by the water–steam cycle. It is shown that both the low pressure control valve (LPCV) of the extraction steam turbine and the high pressure bypass control valve are suitable to ensure the process steam supply during the load change. The controllability of the steam turbine load and the process stability are sufficient as long as the supplementary is not reaching the limits of the operating range.

Copyright © 2017 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Puga, J. N. , 2010, “ The Importance of Combined Cycle Generating Plants in Integrating Large Levels of Wind Power Generation,” Electr. J., 23(7), pp. 33–44. [CrossRef]
Lalor, G. , Ritchie, J. , Flynn, D. , and O'Malley, M. J. , 2005, “ The Impact of Combined-Cycle Gas Turbine Short-Term Dynamics on Frequency Control,” IEEE Trans. Power Syst., 20(3), pp. 1456–1464. [CrossRef]
Campos, F. A. , and Reneses, J. , 2014, “ Energy and Reserve Co-optimization of a Combined Cycle Plant Using Mixed Integer Linear Programming,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 136(10), p. 101702. [CrossRef]
Verband der Netzbetreiber, 2007, “ TransmissionCode 2007,” Berlin, Germany, accessed Aug., https://www.bdew.de/internet.nsf/id/A2A0475F2FAE8F44C12578300047C92F/$file/TransmissionCode.pdf
Brännlund, H. , Rahimi, S. , Eriksson, J. O. , and Thorgrennd, M. , 2012, “ Industrial Implementation of Economic Dispatch for Co-Generation Systems,” IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting, San Diego, CA, July 22–26.
Dolgicers, A. , Guseva, S. , and Sauhats, A. , 2009, “ Market and Environmental Dispatch of Combined Cycle CHP Plant,” IEEE Bucharest PowerTech Conference, Bucharest, Romania, Jun. 28–Jul. 2.
Shin, J. Y. , Jeon, Y. J. , Maeng, D. J. , Kim, J. S. , and Ro, S. T. , 2002, “ Analysis of the Dynamic Characteristics of a Combined-Cycle Power Plant,” Energy, 27(12), pp. 1085–1098. [CrossRef]
Ruchti, C. , Olia, H. , Franitza, K. , Ehrsam, A. , and Bauver, W. , 2011, “ Combined Cycle Power Plants as Ideal Solution to Balance Grid Fluctuations—Fast Start-up Capabilities,” 43th Colloquium of Power Plant Technology, Dresden, Germany, Sept. 18–19.
Ahluwalia, K. S. , and Domenichini, R. , 1990, “ Dynamic Modeling of a Combined-Cycle Plant,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 112(2), pp. 164–167. [CrossRef]
Akiyama, T. , Matsumoto, H. , and Asakura, K. , 1997, “ Dynamic Simulation and Its Application to Optimum Operation Support for Advanced Combined Cycle Plants,” Energy Convers. Manage., 38(15–17), pp. 1709–1723. [CrossRef]
Gülen, S. C. , and Kim, K. , 2014, “ Gas Turbine Combined Cycle Dynamic Simulation: A Physics-Based Simple Approach,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 136(1), p. 011601. [CrossRef]
Rowen, W. I. , 1983, “ Simplified Mathematical Representations of Heavy Duty Gas Turbines,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 105(4), pp. 865–869. [CrossRef]
Rowen, W. I. , 1992, “ Simplified Mathematical Representations of Single Shaft Gas Turbines in Mechanical Drive Service,” ASME Paper No. 92-GT-022.
Crosa, G. , Pittaluga, F. , Martinengo, A. T. , Beltrami, F. , Torelli, A. , and Traverso, F. , 1996, “ Heavy-Duty Gas Turbine Plant Aerothermodynamic Simulation Using Simulink,” ASME Paper No. 96-TA-022.
Kim, J. H. , Song, T. W. , Kim, T. S. , and Ro, S. T. , 2001, “ Model Development and Simulation of Transient Behavior of Heavy Duty Gas Turbines,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 123(3), pp. 589–594. [CrossRef]
Peet, W. J. , and Leung, T. K. P. , 1995, “ Development and Application of a Dynamic Simulation Model for a Drum Type Boiler With Turbine Bypass System,” International Power Engineering Conference, Singapore, Mar.
Alobaid, F. , Pfeiffer, S. , Epple, B. , Seon, C. Y. , and Kim, H. G. , 2012, “ Fast Start-Up Analyses for Benson Heat Recovery Steam Generator,” Energy, 46(1), pp. 295–309. [CrossRef]
De Mello, F. P. , 1991, “ Boiler Models for System Dynamic Performance Studies,” IEEE Trans. Power Appar. Syst., 6(1), pp. 66–74. [CrossRef]
Adam, E. J. , and Marchetti, J. L. , 1999, “ Dynamic Simulation of Large Boilers With Natural Recirculation,” Comput. Chem. Eng., 23(8), pp. 1031–1040. [CrossRef]
Walter, H. , 2007, “ Dynamic Simulation of Natural Circulation Steam Generators With the Use of Finite-Volume-Algorithms—A Comparison of Four Algorithms,” Simul. Modell. Pract. Theory, 15(5), pp. 565–588. [CrossRef]
Walter, H. , and Hofmann, R. , 2011, “ How Can the Heat Transfer Correlations for Finned-Tubes Influence the Numerical Simulation of the Dynamic Behavior of a Heat Recovery Steam Generator?,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 31(4), pp. 405–417. [CrossRef]
Jolly, S. , Gurevich, A. , and Pasha, A. , 1994, “ Modeling of Start-Up Behavior of Combined Cycle HRSGs,” ASME Paper No. 94-GT-370.
Bausa, J. , and Tsatsaronis, G. , 2001, “ Dynamic Optimization of Start-Up and Load-Increasing Processes in Power Plants: Part I—Method,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 123(1), pp. 246–250. [CrossRef]
Bausa, J. , and Tsatsanoris, G. , 2001, “ Dynamic Optimization of Startup and Load-Increasing Processes in Power Plants—Part II: Application,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 123(1), pp. 251–254. [CrossRef]
Alobaid, F. , Postler, R. , Strohle, J. , Epple, B. , and Hyun-Gee, K. , 2008, “ Modeling and Investigation Start-Up Procedures of a Combined Cycle Power Plant,” Appl. Energy, 85(12), pp. 1173–1189. [CrossRef]
Alobaid, F. , Karner, K. , Belz, J. , Epple, B. , and Kim, H. G. , 2014, “ Numerical and Experimental Study of a Heat Recovery Steam Generator During Start-Up Procedure,” Energy, 64, pp. 1057–1070. [CrossRef]
Kim, T. S. , Lee, D. K. , and Ro, S. T. , 2000, “ Analysis of Thermal Stress Evolution in the Steam Drum During Start-Up of a Heat Recovery Steam Generator,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 20(11), pp. 977–992. [CrossRef]
Casella, F. , Farina, M. , Righetti, F. , Scattolini, R. , Faille, D. , Davelaar, F. , and Dumur, D. , 2011, “ An Optimization Procedure of the Start-Up of Combined Cycle Power Plants,” 18th IFAC World Congress, Milano, Italy, Aug. 28–Sept. 2.
Gülen, S. C. , 2013, “ Gas Turbine Combined Cycle Fast Start: The Physics Behind the Concept,” Power Eng., 117(6), pp. 40–45.
Aurora, C. , Diehl, M. , Kuhl, P. , Magni, L. , and Scattolini, R. , 2005, “ Nonlinear Model Predictive Control of Combined Cycle Power Plants,” 16th IFAC World Congress, pp. 128–132.
Ulfsnes, R. E. , Bolland, O. , and Jordal, K. , 2003, “ Modeling and Simulation of Transient Performance of the Semi-Closed O2/CO2 Gas Turbine Cycle for CO2-Capture,” ASME Paper No. GT2003-38068.
Casella, F. , and Colonna, P. , 2012, “ Dynamic Modeling of IGCC Power Plants,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 35, pp. 91–111. [CrossRef]
Apros, Process Simulation Software, Fortum Power Solutions, Fortum, Finland.
Hänninen, M. , and Ylijoki, J. , 2008, “ The One-Dimensional Separate Two-Phase Flow Model of APROS,” VTT, Espoo, Finland, VTT Research Notes 2443.
VDI Gesellschaft, 2010, VDI Heat Atlas, 2nd ed., Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, Germany.
Bergman, T. L. , Lavine, A. S. , Incropera, F. P. , and DeWitt, D. P. , 2011, Fundamentals of Heat and Mass, 7th ed., Wiley, Hoboken, NJ.
Kehlhofer, R. , Rukes, B. , Hannemann, F. , and Stirnimann, F. , 2009, Combined Cycle Gas and Steam Turbine Power Plants, 3rd ed., PennWell Corp., Tulsa, OK, pp. 215–223.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Negative secondary control reserve prequalification test

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Combined heat and power plant (simplified)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Load-dependent gas turbine parameters

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Heat recovery system generator model (simplified)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Steam turbine model

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Flow chart of load control

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Validation load change

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Validation of live steam parameters

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Load range of the CHP plant

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Standard secondary control reserve load change

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Secondary control reserve load change (decreased low pressure flow)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Secondary control reserve load change (high process steam demand)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Secondary Control Reserve load change (decreased low pressure flow with high pressure bypass)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Secondary control reserve load change with high pressure bypass and double steam turbine load change

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Secondary control reserve load change (min. low pressure flow)

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In