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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Turbomachinery

Experimental Investigation of Stall and Surge in a Multistage Compressor

[+] Author and Article Information
Enrico Munari, Michele Pinelli, Pier Ruggero Spina, Alessio Suman

Dipartimento di Ingegneria,
Università degli Studi di Ferrara,
Ferrara 44122, Italy

Mirko Morini

Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale,
Università degli Studi di Parma,
Parma 43121, Italy

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Turbomachinery Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received June 27, 2016; final manuscript received June 30, 2016; published online September 13, 2016. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 139(2), 022605 (Sep 13, 2016) (10 pages) Paper No: GTP-16-1281; doi: 10.1115/1.4034239 History: Received June 27, 2016; Revised June 30, 2016

Flow instability conditions, in particular during surge and stall phenomena, have always influenced the operational reliability of turbocompressors and have attracted significant interest resulting in extensive literature. Nowadays, this subject is still one of the most investigated because of its high relevance on centrifugal and axial compressor operating flow range, performance, and efficiency. Many researchers approach this important issue by developing numerical models, whereas others approach it through experimental studies specifically carried out in order to better comprehend this phenomenon. The aim of this paper is to experimentally analyze the stable and unstable operating conditions of an aeronautic turboshaft gas turbine axial–centrifugal compressor installed on a brand new test rig properly designed for this purpose. The test facility is set up in order to obtain (i) the compressor performance maps at rotational speeds up to 25,000 rpm and (ii) the compressor transient behavior during surge. By using two different test rig layouts, instabilities occurring in the compressor, beyond the peak of the characteristic curve, are identified and investigated. These two types of analysis are carried out, thanks to pressure, temperature, and mass flow sensors located in strategic positions along the circuit. These measurement sensors are part of a proper control and acquisition system, characterized by an adjustable sampling frequency. Thus, the desired operating conditions of the compressor in terms of mass flow and rotational speed and transient of these two parameters are regulated by this dedicated control system.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Three-Dimensional sketch of the piping system

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Fig. 2

Two-dimensional sketch of the piping system: (a) layout #1 and (b) layout #2

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Fig. 3

Diagram of the control and acquisition system

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Fig. 4

Steady-state performance map: pressure ratio

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Fig. 5

Steady-state performance maps: isentropic efficiency

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Fig. 6

Steady-state performance maps: static pressure ratio at stage five (bleed valve position)

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Fig. 7

Dynamic test at ν = 10,000 rpm

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Fig. 8

Dynamic test at ν = 10,000 rpm. Typical surge oscillations encountered on p2, m1, m3, and Pmec,norm.

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Fig. 9

Dynamic test at ν = 10,000 rpm. Characteristic curve toward surge and recover from surge.

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Fig. 10

Dynamic test at ν = 15,000 rpm. Surge pulsations of p2, m1, m3, and Pmec,norm.

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Fig. 11

Dynamic test at ν = 10,000 rpm. Fast-response transducers signals at compressor a few instants before surge.

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Fig. 12

Dynamic test at ν = 10,000 rpm. Stall analysis at compressor inlet. Frequency domain analysis.

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Fig. 13

Dynamic test at ν = 10,000 rpm. Stall analysis at compressor inlet. Complete development of rotating perturbations.

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