0
Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Temperature Measurements at the Outlet of a Lean Burn Single-Sector Combustor by Laser Optical Methods

[+] Author and Article Information
Ulrich Doll

DLR—German Aerospace Center,
Institute of Propulsion Technology,
Linder Hoehe,
Cologne 51147, Germany
e-mail: Ulrich.Dolll@dlr.de

Guido Stockhausen

DLR—German Aerospace Center,
Institute of Propulsion Technology,
Linder Hoehe,
Cologne 51147, Germany
e-mail: Guido.Stockhausen@dlr.de

Johannes Heinze

DLR—German Aerospace Center,
Institute of Propulsion Technology,
Linder Hoehe,
Cologne 51147, Germany
e-mail: Johannes.Heinze@dlr.de

Ulrich Meier

DLR—German Aerospace Center,
Institute of Propulsion Technology,
Linder Hoehe,
Cologne 51147, Germany
e-mail: Ulrich.Meier@dlr.de

Christoph Hassa

DLR—German Aerospace Center,
Institute of Propulsion Technology,
Linder Hoehe,
Cologne 51147, Germany
e-mail: Christoph.Hassa@dlr.de

Imon Bagchi

Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG,
Eschenweg 11, Dahlewitz,
Blankenfelde-Mahlow 15827, Germany
e-mail: Imon-Kalyan.Bagchi@rolls-royce.com

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received June 29, 2016; final manuscript received July 5, 2016; published online September 20, 2016. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 139(2), 021507 (Sep 20, 2016) (10 pages) Paper No: GTP-16-1288; doi: 10.1115/1.4034355 History: Received June 29, 2016; Revised July 05, 2016

High overall pressure ratio (OPR) engine cycles for reduced NOx emissions will generate new aggravated requirements and boundary conditions by implementing low emission combustion technologies into advanced engine architectures. Lean burn combustion systems will have a significant impact on the temperature and velocity traverse at the combustor exit. With the transition to high-pressure engines, it is essential to fully understand and determine the high energetic interface between combustor and turbine to avoid excessive cooling. Spatially resolved temperatures were measured at different operating conditions using planar laser-induced fluorescence of OH (OH-PLIF) and filtered Rayleigh scattering (FRS), the latter being used in a combustor environment for the first time. Apart from a conventional signal detection arrangement, FRS was also applied with an endoscope for signal collection, to assess its feasibility for future application in a full annular combustor with restricted optical access. Both techniques are complementary in several respects, which justified their combined application. OH-PLIF allows instantaneous measurements and therefore enables local temperature statistics, but is limited to relatively high temperatures. On the other hand, FRS can also be applied at low temperatures, which makes it particularly attractive for measurements in cooling layers. However, FRS requires long sampling times and therefore can only provide temporal averages. When applied in combination, the accuracy of both techniques could be improved by each method helping to overcome the other's shortcomings.

Copyright © 2017 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

von der Bank, R. , Donnerhack, S. , Rae, A. , Cazalens, M. , Lundbladh, A. , and Dietz, M. , 2014, “ LEMCOTEC: Improving the Core-Engine Thermal Efficiency,” ASME Paper No. GT2014-25040.
Raynaud, F. , Eggels, R. L. G. M. , Staufer, M. , and Sadiki, A. , 2015, “ Towards Unsteady Simulation of Combustor–Turbine Interaction Using an Integrated Approach,” ASME Paper No. GT2015-42110.
Andreini, A. , Facchini, B. , Insinna, M. , Mazzei, L. , and Salvadori, S. , 2015, “ Hybrid RANS-LES Modeling of a Hot Streak Generator Oriented to the Study of Combustor–Turbine Interaction,” ASME Paper No. GT2015-42402.
Schmid, G. , Krichbaum, A. , Werschnik, H. , and Schiffer, H.-P. , 2014, “ The Impact of Realistic Inlet Swirl in a 1½ Stage Axial Turbine,” ASME Paper No. GT2014-26716.
Cresci, I. , Ireland, P. T. , and Bacic., M. , 2015, “ Velocity and Turbulence Intensity Profiles Downstream of a Long Reach Endwall Double Row of Film Cooling Holes in a Gas Turbine Combustor Representative Environment,” ASME Paper No. GT2015-42307.
Bacci, T. , Caciolli, G. , Facchini, B. , Tarchi, L. , Koupper, C. , and Champion, J.-L. , 2015, “ Flowfield and Temperature Profiles Measurements on a Combustor Simulator Dedicated to Hot Streaks Generation,” ASME Paper No. GT2015-42217.
Bacci, T. , Facchini, B. , Picchi, A. , Tarchi, L. , Koupper, C. , and Champion, J.-L. , 2015, “ Turbulence Field Measurements at the Exit of a Combustor Simulator Dedicated to Hot Streaks Generation,” ASME Paper No. GT2015-42218.
Luque, S. , Kanjirakkad, V. , Aslanidou, I. , Lubbock, R. , Rosic, B. , and Uchida, S. , 2015, “ A New Experimental Facility to Investigate Combustor–Turbine Interactions in Gas Turbines With Multiple Can Combustors,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 137(5), p. 051503. [CrossRef]
Cha, C. M. , Hong, S. , Ireland, P. T. , Denman, P. , and Savarianandam, V. , 2012, “ Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Combustor–Turbine Interaction Using an Isothermal, Nonreacting Tracer,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 134(8), p. 081501. [CrossRef]
Estevadeordal, J. , Opaits, D. , and Kalra, C. , 2014, “ Investigation of Filtered Rayleigh Scattering Techniques for Rig Testing Diagnostics,” ASME Paper No. GT2014-26887.
Pitz, R. W. , Wehrmeyer, J. A. , Ribarov, L. A. , Oguss, D. A. , Batliwala, F. , DeBarber, P. A. , Deusch, S. , and Dimotakis, P. E. , 2000, “ Unseeded Molecular Flow Tagging in Cold and Hot Flows Using Ozone and Hydroxyl Tagging Velocimetry,” Meas. Sci. Technol., 11(9), pp. 1259–1271. [CrossRef]
Ribarov, L. A. , Wehrmeyer, J. A. , Hu, S. , and Pitz, R. W. , 2004, “ Multiline Hydroxyl Tagging Velocimetry Measurements in Reacting and Nonreacting Experimental Flows,” Exp. Fluids, 37(1), pp. 65–74. [CrossRef]
Ribarov, L. A. , Hu, S. , Wehrmeyer, J. A. , and Pitz, R. W. , 2004, “ Hydroxyl Tagging Velocimetry Method and Optimization: Signal Intensity and Spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt., 44(31), pp. 6616–6626. [CrossRef]
DLR, 2016, “ Hochdruck-Brennkammer-Prüfstand 1 (HBK-1),” DLR, German Aerospace Center, Cologne, Germany.
Meier, U. , Freitag, S. , Heinze, J. , Lange, L. , Magens, E. , Schroll, M. , Willert, C. , Hassa, C. , Bagchi, I. K. , Lazik, W. , and Whiteman, M. , 2013, “ Characterization of a Lean Burn Module Air Blast Pilot Injector With Laser Techniques,” ASME Paper No. GT2013-94796.
Meier, U. , Heinze, J. , Magens, E. , Schroll, M. , Hassa, C. , Bake, S. , and Doerr, Th. , 2015, “ Optically Accessible Multisector Combustor: Application and Challenges of Laser Techniques at Realistic Operating Conditions,” ASME Paper No. GT2015-43391.
Heinze, J. , Meier, U. , Behrendt, T. , Willert, C. , Geigle, K.-P. , Lammel, O. , and Lückerath, R. , 2011, “ PLIF Thermometry Based on Measurements of Absolute Concentrations of the OH Radical,” Z. Phys. Chem., 225(11–12), pp. 1315–1341. [CrossRef]
Miles, R. B. , Lempert, W. R. , and Forkey, J. N. , 2001, “ Laser Rayleigh Scattering,” Meas. Sci. Technol., 12(5), pp. R33–R51. [CrossRef]
Miles, R. , and Lempert, W. , 1990, “ Two-Dimensional Measurement of Density, Velocity, and Temperature in Turbulent High-Speed Air Flows by UV Rayleigh Scattering,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt., 51(1), pp. 1–7. [CrossRef]
Forkey, J. , Finkelstein, N. , Lempert, W. , and Miles, R. , 1996, “ Demonstration and Characterization of Filtered Rayleigh Scattering for Planar Velocity Measurements: Aerodynamic Measurement Technology,” AIAA J., 34(3), pp. 442–448. [CrossRef]
Doll, U. , Stockhausen, G. , and Willert, C. , 2014, “ Endoscopic Filtered Rayleigh Scattering for the Analysis of Ducted Gas Flows,” Exp. Fluids, 55(3), pp. 1–13. [CrossRef]
Pitz, R. , Cattolica, R. , Robben, F. , and Talbot, L. , 1976, “ Temperature and Density in a Hydrogen–Air Flame From Rayleigh Scattering,” Combust. Flame, 27, pp. 313–320. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Experimental setup of combined OH-PLIF and OH laser absorption technique

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic view of the OCORE test section (left) and photograph during staged operation (right)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

(Top) Narrow bandwidth light scattered from large particles (Mie) or surfaces (geometric) is suppressed, while spectral fractions of the Rayleigh scattering pass through. (Bottom) Frequency scanning method: The laser is modulated multiple times in frequency along the filter transmission curve.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Optical setups for OH-PLIF (a), FRS with endoscopic detection (b), and FRS with conventional detection (c)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

OH-PLIF measurements at intermediate power, staged operation: (a) instantaneous OH distribution, (b) resulting temperature, (c) average temperature, and (d) rms temperature. Circled measurement positions correspond to PDFs in Fig. 9.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Principle setup for conventional and endoscopic FRS

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Laser beam positions for conventional (vertical) and endoscopic setup (horizontal)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

(Top) From the upper left, the endoscope (black line) observes the combustor exit with the laser propagating along the y-axis. (Bottom) Cooling jacket for fiber endoscope.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Temperature PDFs at the tangential positions indicated in Fig. 8: y/y0 = +0.5 (top), 0 (middle), and −0.5 (bottom)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Comparison of vertical temperature profiles for conventional (solid) and endoscopic (diamond) FRS at y = 0.8 (left), 0.4 (middle), and 0 (right); low power condition

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Comparison of horizontal temperature profiles for conventional (diamond) and endoscopic (solid) FRS at z/h = 0.2 (top), 0 (middle), and −0.4 (bottom); low power condition

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Tangential profiles of temperatures from FRS measurements with corrections from OH PLIF statistics; profiles at z/h = 0.2; lean intermediate power case

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Single-pulse statistics from OH-PLIF data for lean intermediate power operating point with large OH concentration

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Temperature map for conventional FRS, interpolated from 1D results; low power pilot-only condition. Only one-half of exit section is shown, center is at y = 0.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Possible arrangements for a PLIF measurement at the exit plane of a full annular combustor. Signal detection for (b) and (c) is through an upstream borescope, as shown in (a). The reflector is needed for the OH absorption measurement of a light sheet in radial direction. Setup (c) is also suitable for FRS.

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In