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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Temperature Measurements at the Outlet of a Lean Burn Single-Sector Combustor by Laser Optical Methods

[+] Author and Article Information
Ulrich Doll

DLR—German Aerospace Center,
Institute of Propulsion Technology,
Linder Hoehe,
Cologne 51147, Germany
e-mail: Ulrich.Dolll@dlr.de

Guido Stockhausen

DLR—German Aerospace Center,
Institute of Propulsion Technology,
Linder Hoehe,
Cologne 51147, Germany
e-mail: Guido.Stockhausen@dlr.de

Johannes Heinze

DLR—German Aerospace Center,
Institute of Propulsion Technology,
Linder Hoehe,
Cologne 51147, Germany
e-mail: Johannes.Heinze@dlr.de

Ulrich Meier

DLR—German Aerospace Center,
Institute of Propulsion Technology,
Linder Hoehe,
Cologne 51147, Germany
e-mail: Ulrich.Meier@dlr.de

Christoph Hassa

DLR—German Aerospace Center,
Institute of Propulsion Technology,
Linder Hoehe,
Cologne 51147, Germany
e-mail: Christoph.Hassa@dlr.de

Imon Bagchi

Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG,
Eschenweg 11, Dahlewitz,
Blankenfelde-Mahlow 15827, Germany
e-mail: Imon-Kalyan.Bagchi@rolls-royce.com

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received June 29, 2016; final manuscript received July 5, 2016; published online September 20, 2016. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 139(2), 021507 (Sep 20, 2016) (10 pages) Paper No: GTP-16-1288; doi: 10.1115/1.4034355 History: Received June 29, 2016; Revised July 05, 2016

High overall pressure ratio (OPR) engine cycles for reduced NOx emissions will generate new aggravated requirements and boundary conditions by implementing low emission combustion technologies into advanced engine architectures. Lean burn combustion systems will have a significant impact on the temperature and velocity traverse at the combustor exit. With the transition to high-pressure engines, it is essential to fully understand and determine the high energetic interface between combustor and turbine to avoid excessive cooling. Spatially resolved temperatures were measured at different operating conditions using planar laser-induced fluorescence of OH (OH-PLIF) and filtered Rayleigh scattering (FRS), the latter being used in a combustor environment for the first time. Apart from a conventional signal detection arrangement, FRS was also applied with an endoscope for signal collection, to assess its feasibility for future application in a full annular combustor with restricted optical access. Both techniques are complementary in several respects, which justified their combined application. OH-PLIF allows instantaneous measurements and therefore enables local temperature statistics, but is limited to relatively high temperatures. On the other hand, FRS can also be applied at low temperatures, which makes it particularly attractive for measurements in cooling layers. However, FRS requires long sampling times and therefore can only provide temporal averages. When applied in combination, the accuracy of both techniques could be improved by each method helping to overcome the other's shortcomings.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic view of the OCORE test section (left) and photograph during staged operation (right)

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Fig. 2

Optical setups for OH-PLIF (a), FRS with endoscopic detection (b), and FRS with conventional detection (c)

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Fig. 3

Experimental setup of combined OH-PLIF and OH laser absorption technique

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Fig. 4

(Top) Narrow bandwidth light scattered from large particles (Mie) or surfaces (geometric) is suppressed, while spectral fractions of the Rayleigh scattering pass through. (Bottom) Frequency scanning method: The laser is modulated multiple times in frequency along the filter transmission curve.

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Fig. 5

Principle setup for conventional and endoscopic FRS

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Fig. 6

Laser beam positions for conventional (vertical) and endoscopic setup (horizontal)

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Fig. 7

(Top) From the upper left, the endoscope (black line) observes the combustor exit with the laser propagating along the y-axis. (Bottom) Cooling jacket for fiber endoscope.

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Fig. 8

OH-PLIF measurements at intermediate power, staged operation: (a) instantaneous OH distribution, (b) resulting temperature, (c) average temperature, and (d) rms temperature. Circled measurement positions correspond to PDFs in Fig. 9.

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Fig. 10

Temperature map for conventional FRS, interpolated from 1D results; low power pilot-only condition. Only one-half of exit section is shown, center is at y = 0.

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Fig. 9

Temperature PDFs at the tangential positions indicated in Fig. 8: y/y0 = +0.5 (top), 0 (middle), and −0.5 (bottom)

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Fig. 11

Comparison of vertical temperature profiles for conventional (solid) and endoscopic (diamond) FRS at y = 0.8 (left), 0.4 (middle), and 0 (right); low power condition

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Fig. 12

Comparison of horizontal temperature profiles for conventional (diamond) and endoscopic (solid) FRS at z/h = 0.2 (top), 0 (middle), and −0.4 (bottom); low power condition

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Fig. 14

Tangential profiles of temperatures from FRS measurements with corrections from OH PLIF statistics; profiles at z/h = 0.2; lean intermediate power case

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Fig. 13

Single-pulse statistics from OH-PLIF data for lean intermediate power operating point with large OH concentration

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Fig. 15

Possible arrangements for a PLIF measurement at the exit plane of a full annular combustor. Signal detection for (b) and (c) is through an upstream borescope, as shown in (a). The reflector is needed for the OH absorption measurement of a light sheet in radial direction. Setup (c) is also suitable for FRS.

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