Raman,
V.
, and
Fox,
R. O.
, 2016, “
Modeling of Fine-Particle Formation in Turbulent Flames,” Ann. Rev. Fluid Mech.,
48(1), pp. 159–190.

[CrossRef]
Donde,
P.
,
Raman,
V.
,
Mueller,
M. E.
, and
Pitsch,
H.
, 2013, “
LES/PDF Based Modeling of Soot-Turbulence Interactions in Turbulent Flames,” Proc. Combust. Inst.,
34(1), pp. 1183–1192.

[CrossRef]
Mueller,
M. E.
,
Chan,
Q. N.
,
Qamar,
N. H.
,
Dally,
B. B.
,
Pitsch,
H.
,
Alwahabi,
Z. T.
, and
Nathan,
G. J.
, 2013, “
Experimental and Computational Study of Soot Evolution in a Turbulent Nonpremixed Bluff Body Ethylene Flame,” Combust. Flame,
160(7), pp. 1298–1309.

[CrossRef]
Raman,
V.
, and
Dally,
B.
, 2014, “
Turbulent Sooting Flames,” Second International Sooting Flame (ISF) Workshop, pp. 7–13.

Mueller,
M. E.
, and
Pitsch,
H.
, 2012, “
LES Models for Sooting Turbulent Nonpremixed Flames,” Combust. Flame,
159(6), pp. 2166–2180.

[CrossRef]
Mueller,
M. E.
, and
Pitsch,
H.
, 2013, “
Large Eddy Simulation of Soot Evolution in an Aircraft Combustor,” Phys. Fluids,
25(11), p. 110812.

[CrossRef]
Raman,
V.
,
Pitsch,
H.
, and
Fox,
R. O.
, 2005, “
A Consistent Hybrid LES-FDF Scheme for the Simulation of Turbulent Reactive Flows,” Combust. Flame,
143(1–2), pp. 56–78.

[CrossRef]
Kempf,
A.
,
Lindstedt,
R. P.
, and
Janicka,
J.
, 2006, “
Large-Eddy Simulation of Bluff-Body Stabilized Nonpremixed Flame,” Combust. Flame,
144(1–2), pp. 170–189.

[CrossRef]
Raman,
V.
, and
Pitsch,
H.
, 2005, “
Large-Eddy Simulation of Bluff-Body Stabilized Non-Premixed Flame Using a Recursive-Refinement Procedure,” Combust. Flame,
142(4), pp. 329–347.

[CrossRef]
Ghosal,
S.
, 1996, “
An Analysis of Numerical Errors in Large-Eddy Simulations of Turbulence,” J. Comput. Phys.,
125(1), pp. 187–206.

[CrossRef]
Chow,
F.
, and
Moin,
P.
, 2003, “
A Further Study of Numerical Errors in Large-Eddy Simulations,” J. Comput. Phys.,
184(2), pp. 366–380.

[CrossRef]
Kaul,
C. M.
,
Raman,
V.
,
Balarac,
G.
, and
Pitsch,
H.
, 2009, “
Effect of Numerical Errors on Sub-Filter Scalar Variance Models,” Phys. Fluids,
21(5), p. 055102.

[CrossRef]
Kaul,
C. M.
, and
Raman,
V.
, 2011, “
A Posteriori Analysis of Numerical Errors in Subfilter Scalar Variance Modeling for Large Eddy Simulation,” Phys. Fluids,
23(3), p. 035102.

[CrossRef]
Ham,
F.
, and
Iaccarino,
G.
, 2004, “
Energy Conservation in Collocated Disretization Schemes on Unstructured Meshes,” CTR Annual Research Briefs, Center for Turbulence Research, NASA Ames/Stanford University, Stanford, CA, pp. 3–14.

OpenFOAM, 2016, “The Open Source CFD Toolbox,” ESI Group, Paris.

Geigle,
K. P.
,
Zerbs,
J.
,
Köhler,
M.
,
Stöhr,
M.
, and
Meier,
W.
, 2011, “
Experimental Analysis of Soot Formation and Oxidation in a Gas Turbine Model Combustor Using Laser Diagnostics,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power,
133(12), p. 121503.

[CrossRef]
Koo,
H.
,
Raman,
V.
,
Mueller,
M. E.
, and
Geigle,
K. P.
, 2015, “
Large-Eddy Simulation of a Turbulent Sooting Flame in a Swirling Combustor,” 53rd AIAA Aerospace Science Meeting, AIAA Paper No. 2015-0167.

Mueller,
M. E.
, 2012, “
Large Eddy Simulation of Soot Evolution in Turbulent Reacting Flows,” Ph.D. thesis, Stanford University, Stanford, CA.

Mueller,
M. E.
,
Blanquart,
G.
, and
Pitsch,
H.
, 2009, “
Hybrid Method of Moments for Modeling Soot Formation and Growth,” Combust. Flame,
156(6), pp. 1143–1155.

[CrossRef]
Mueller,
M. E.
, and
Pitsch,
H.
, 2011, “
Large Eddy Simulation Subfilter Modeling of Soot-Turbulence Interactions,” Phys. Fluids,
23(11), p. 115104.

[CrossRef]
Blanquart,
G.
, and
Pitsch,
H.
, 2009, Combustion Generated Fine Carbonaceous Particles,
Karlsruhe University Press, Karlsruhe, Germany.

Pierce,
C. D.
, and
Moin,
P.
, 2004, “
Progress-Variable Approach for Large-Eddy Simulation of Non-Premixed Turbulent Combustion,” J. Fluid Mech.,
504, pp. 73–97.

[CrossRef]
Germano,
M.
,
Piomelli,
U.
,
Moin,
P.
, and
Cabot,
W. H.
, 1991, “
A Dynamic Subgrid-Scale Eddy Viscosity Model,” Phys. Fluids,
7, pp. 1760–1765.

[CrossRef]
Kim,
J.
, and
Moin,
P.
, 1985, “
Application of a Fractional-Step Method to Incompressible Navier–Stokes Equations,” J. Comput. Phys.,
59(2), pp. 308–323.

[CrossRef]
Akselvoll,
K.
, and
Moin,
P.
, 1996, “
Large Eddy Simulation of Turbulent Confined Coannular Jets,” J. Fluid Mech.,
315, pp. 387–411.

[CrossRef]
Pierce,
C. D.
, 2001, “
Progress-Variable Approach for Large-Eddy Simulation of Turbulence Combustion,” Ph.D. thesis, Stanford University, Stanford, CA.

Lietz,
C.
,
Tang,
Y.
,
Koo,
H.
,
Hassanaly,
M.
, and
Raman,
V.
, 2015, “
Large Eddy Simulation of a High-Pressure Multi-Jet Combustor Using Flamelet Modeling,” 10th OpenFOAM Workshop.

Morinishi,
Y.
, 2010, “
Skew-Symmetric Form of Convective Terms and Fully Conservative Finite Difference Schemes for Variable Density Low-Mach Number Flows,” J. Comput. Phys.,
229(2), pp. 276–300.

[CrossRef]
Felten,
F. N.
, and
Lund,
T. S.
, 2006, “
Kinetic Energy Conservation Issues Associated With the Collocated Mesh Scheme for Incompressible Flow,” J. Comput. Phys.,
215(2), pp. 465–484.

[CrossRef]
Issa,
R. I.
, 1985, “
Solution of the Implicitly Discretised Fluid Flow Equations by Operator-Splitting,” J. Comput. Phys.,
62(1), pp. 40–65.

[CrossRef]
Kravchenko,
A. G.
, and
Moin,
P.
, 1997, “
On the Effect of Numerical Errors in Large Eddy Simulations of Turbulent Flows,” J. Comput. Phys.,
131(2), pp. 310–322.

[CrossRef]
Mahesh,
K.
,
Constantinescu,
G.
, and
Moin,
P.
, 2004, “
A Numerical Method for Large-Eddy Simulation in Complex Geometries,” J. Comput. Phys.,
197(1), pp. 215–240.

[CrossRef]
Nicoud,
F.
, 2000, “
Conservative High-Order Finite-Difference Schemes for Low-Mach Number Flows,” J. Comput. Phys.,
158(1), pp. 71–97.

[CrossRef]
Pope,
S. B.
, 2000, Turbulent Flows,
Cambridge University Press,
Cambridge, Chap. 13.3–13.4.

Pope,
S. B.
, 2004, “
Ten Questions Concerning the Large-Eddy Simulation of Turbulent Flows,” New J. Phys.,
6(1), p. 35.

Blanquart,
G.
,
Pepiot-Desjardins,
P.
, and
Pitsch,
H.
, 2009, “
Chemical Mechanism for High Temperature Combustion of Engine Relevant Fuels With Emphasis on Soot Precursors,” Combust. Flame,
156(3), pp. 588–607.

[CrossRef]
Narayanaswamy,
K.
,
Blanquart,
G.
, and
Pitsch,
H.
, 2010, “
A Consistent Chemical Mechanism for Oxidation of Substituted Aromatic Species,” Combust. Flame,
157(10), pp. 1879–1898.

[CrossRef]
Widenhorn,
A.
,
Noll,
B.
,
Stöhr,
M.
, and
Aigner,
M.
, 2008, “
Numerical Characterization of the Non-Reacting Flow in a Swirled Gasturbine Model Combustor,” High Performance Computing in Science and Engineering, Springer, Stuttgart, Germany, pp. 431–444.

Widenhorn,
A.
,
Noll,
B.
, and
Aigner,
M.
, 2010, “
Numerical Characterization of a Gas Turbine Model Combustor,” High Performance Computing in Science and Engineering, Springer, Stuttgart, Germany, pp. 179–195.