0
Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Heat Transfer

Development of a Fast-Response Aerodynamic Pressure Probe Based on a Waveguide Approach

[+] Author and Article Information
Andrea Fioravanti

Department of Industrial Engineering,
University of Florence,
Via S. Marta, 3,
Florence 50139, Italy
e-mail: andrea.fioravanti@unifi.it

Giulio Lenzi

Department of Industrial Engineering,
University of Florence,
Via S. Marta, 3,
Florence 50139, Italy
e-mail: giulio.lenzi@unifi.it

Giovanni Ferrara

Department of Industrial Engineering,
University of Florence,
Via S. Marta, 3,
Florence 50139, Italy
e-mail: giovanni.ferrara@unifi.it

Lorenzo Ferrari

National Research Council of Italy
(CNR-ICCOM),
Department of Industrial Engineering,
University of Florence,
Via S. Marta, 3,
Florence 50139, Italy
e-mail: lorenzo.ferrari@iccom.cnr.it

Contributed by the Controls, Diagnostics and Instrumentation Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received July 6, 2016; final manuscript received July 12, 2016; published online September 27, 2016. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 139(3), 031902 (Sep 27, 2016) (11 pages) Paper No: GTP-16-1311; doi: 10.1115/1.4034451 History: Received July 06, 2016; Revised July 12, 2016

Currently, fast-response aerodynamic probes are widely used for advanced experimental investigations in turbomachinery applications. The most common configuration is a virtual three-hole probe. This solution is a good compromise between probe dimension and accuracy. Several authors have attempted to extend the capabilities of these probes in terms of bandwidth and operating conditions. Even though differences exist between the solutions in the literature, all of the designs involve the positioning of a dynamic pressure sensor close to the measurement point. In general terms, the higher the frequency response, the more the sensor is exposed to the flow. This physical constraint puts a limit on the probe applicability since the measurement conditions have to comply with the maximum allowed operating conditions of the sensor. In other applications, when the conditions are particularly harsh and a direct measurement is not possible, a waveguide probe is commonly used to estimate the local pressure. In this device, the sensor is connected to the measurement point through a transmitting duct which guarantees that the sensor is operating in a less critical condition. Generally, the measurement is performed through a pressure tap and particular attention must be paid to the probe design in order to have an acceptable frequency response function. In this study, the authors conceived, developed, and tested a probe which combines the concept of a fast-response aerodynamic pressure probe with that of a waveguide probe. Such a device exploits the benefits of having the sensor far from the harsh conditions while maintaining the capability to perform an accurate flow measurement.

Copyright © 2017 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Kupferschmied, P. , Koppel, P. , Gizzi, W. , Roduner, C. , and Gyarmathy, G. , 2000, “ Time-Resolved Flow Measurements With Fast-Response Aerodynamic Probes in Turbomachines,” Meas. Sci. Technol., 11(7), pp. 1036–1054. [CrossRef]
Sieverding, C. H. , Arts, T. , Dénos, R. , and Brouckaert, J. F. , 2000, “ Measurement Techniques for Unsteady Flows in Turbomachines,” Exp. Fluids, 28(4), pp. 285–321. [CrossRef]
Brouckaert, J. F. , Sievering, C. H. , and Manna, M. , 1998, “ Development of a Fast Response 3-Hole Pressure Probe,” 14th Symposium on Measurements Tech for Transonic and Supersonic Flows in Cascades and Turbomachines, Limerick, Ireland, Sept. 2–4.
Humm, H. J. , and Verdegaal, J. , 1992, “ Aerodynamic Design Criteria for Fast-Response Probes,” 11th Symposium on Measuring Techniques in Transonic and Supersonic Flow in Cascades and Turbomachines, Rhode Saint Genèse, Belgium.
Humm, H. J. , Gizzi, W. P. , and Gyarmathy, G. , 1994, “ Dynamic Response of Aerodynamic Probes in Fluctuating 3D Flows,” 12th Symposium on Measuring Techniques in Transonic and Supersonic Flow in Cascades and Turbomachines, Prague, Czech Republic, Sept. 12–12.
Mersinligil, M. , Brouckaert, J. , Courtiade, N. , and Ottavy, X. , 2011, “ A High Temperature High Bandwidth Fast Response Total Pressure Probe for Measurements in a Multistage Axial Compressor,” ASME Paper No. GT2011-45558.
Persico, G. , Gaetani, P. , and Guardone, A. , 2005, “ Design and Analysis of New Concept Fast-Response Pressure Probes,” Meas. Sci. Technol., 16(9), pp. 1741–1750. [CrossRef]
Mansour, M. , Chokani, N. , Kalfas, A. , and Abhari, R. , 2008, “ Time-Resolved Entropy Measurements Using a Fast Response Entrophy Probe,” Meas. Sci. Technol., 19(11), p. 115401. [CrossRef]
Pfau, A. , Schlienger, J. , Kalfas, A. I. , and Abhari, R. S. , 2002, “ Virtual Four Sensor Fast Response Aerodynamic Probe,” 16th Symposium on Measuring Techniques in Transonic and Supersonic Flow in Cascades and Turbomachines, Cambridge, UK.
Lenherr, C. , Kalfas, A. I. , and Abhari, R. S. , 2010, “ High Temperature Fast Response Aerodynamic Probe,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 133(1), p. 011603.
Pfau, A. , Schlienger, J. , Kalfas, A. I. , and Abhari, R. S. , 2003, “ Unsteady, 3-Dimensional Flow Measurement Using a Miniature Virtual 4 Sensor Fast Response Aerodynamic Probe FRAP,” ASME Paper No. GT2003-38128.
Pfau, A. , Schlienger, J. , Rusch, D. , Kalfas, A. I. , and Abhari, R. S. , 2005, “ Unsteady Flow Interactions Within the Inlet Cavity of a Turbine Rotor Tip Labyrinth Seal,” ASME J. Turbomach., 127(4), pp. 679–688. [CrossRef]
Schlienger, J. , Pfau, A. , Kalfas, A. L. , and Abhari, R. S. , 2002, “ Single Pressure Transducer Probe for 3D Flow Measurements,” 16th Symposium on Measuring Techniques in Transonic and Supersonic Flow in Cascades and Turbomachines, Cambridge, UK, Sept.
Blackshear, P. , Rayle, W. , and Tower, L. , 1995, “ Study of Screeching Combustion in 6-Inch Simulated Afterburner,” National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, Technical Report No. NACA-TN-3567.
Zinn, H. , and Habermann, M. , 2007, “ Developments and Experiences With Pulsation Measurements for Heavy-Duty Gas Turbine,” ASME Paper No. GT2007-27475.
White, M. A. , Dhingra, M. , and Prasad, J. V. R. , 2010, “ Experimental Analysis of a Waveguide Pressure Measuring System,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 132(4), p. 041603. [CrossRef]
Tijdeman, H. , 1977, “ Investigations of the Transonic Flow Around Oscillating Airfoils,” National Aerospace Laboratory, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, Technical Report No. NLR TR 77090 U.
Ferrara, G. , Ferrari, L. , and Lenzi, G. , 2014, “ An Experimental Methodology for the Reconstruction of 3D Acoustic Pressure Fields in Ducts,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 136(1), p. 011505. [CrossRef]
Iberall, A. , 1950, “ Attenuation of Oscillatory Pressures in Instrument Lines,” Trans. ASME, 725, pp. 689–695.
Bergh, H. , and Tijdeman, H. , 1965, “ Theoretical and Experimental Results for the Dynamic Response of Pressure Measuring Systems,” National Aero-and Astronautical Research Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, Technical Report No. NLR-TR F.238.
Tijdeman, H. , 1975, “ On the Propagation of Sound Waves in Cylindrical Tubes,” J. Sound Vib., 39(1), pp. 1–33. [CrossRef]
Nyland, T. W. , Englund, D. R. , and Anderson, R. C. , 1971, “ On the Dynamics of Short Pressure Probes Some Design Factors Affecting Frequency Response,” National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH, Report No. NASA-TN-D-6151.
Richards, W. B. , 1986, “ Propagation of Sound Waves in Tube of Noncircular Cross Section,” National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Technical Report No. 2601.
Englund, D. , and Richards, W. , 1984, “ The Infinite Line Pressure Probe,” NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH, NASA Technical Memorandum No. 83582.
Van de Wyer , N., Brouckaert , J. F. , and Miorini, R. L. , “ On the Determination of the Transfer Function of Infinite Line Pressure Probes for Turbomachinery Applications,” ASME Paper No. GT2012-69563.
Parrott, T. L. , and Zorumski, W. E. , 1992, “ Sound Transmission Through a High-Temperature Acoustic Probe Tube,” AIAA J., 30(2), pp. 318–323. [CrossRef]
Ferrara, G. , Ferrari, L. , and Sonni , G., “ Experimental Characterization of a Remoting System for Dynamic Pressure Sensors,” ASME Paper No. GT2005-68733.
Munjal, M. L. , 1987, Acoustic of Ducts and Mufflers, Wiley, New York.
Lenzi, G. , Fioravanti, A. , Ferrara, G. , and Ferrari, L. , 2015, “ Development of an Innovative Multisensor Waveguide Probe With Improved Measurement Capabilities,” ASME. J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 137(5), p. 051601. [CrossRef]
Zwikker, C. , and Kosten, C. , 1949, Sound Absorbing Materials, Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Durrieu, P. , Hofmans, G. , Ajello, G. , Boot, R. , Aurégan, Y. , Hirschberg, A. , and Peters, M. , 2001, “ Quasisteady Aero-Acoustic Response of Orifices,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 110(4), pp. 1859–1872. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Seong-Hyun, L. , and Jeong-Guon, Ih ., 2003, “ Empirical Model of the Acoustic Impedance of a Circular Orifice in Grazing Mean Flow,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 114(1), pp. 98–113. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Gossweiler, C. R. , Kupferschmied, P. , and Gyarmathy, G. , 1995, “ On Fast-Response Probes—Part 1: Technology, Calibration, and Application to Turbomachinery,” ASME J. Turbomach., 117(4), pp. 611–617. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Sketch of the modified waveguide probe (dimensions in millimeters)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Sketch of the sensor housing (dimensions in millimeters)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Picture of the probe head

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Detail of sensor housing

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Full view of the probe (w/o damping duct)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Scheme of the waveguide probe with the standard head (dimensions in millimeters)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Scheme of the waveguide probe with the modified head (dimensions in millimeters)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Attenuation predicted by the numerical model for the standard waveguide probe simplified (WGP-S) and modified (WSG-M) waveguide probe

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Experimental and numerical attenuation for the standard waveguide probe (WGP-S)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Experimental attenuation for the standard (WGP-S) and modified (WSG-M) waveguide probe

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Experimental and numerical attenuation for the modified waveguide probe (WGP-M)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Phase shift between the calibration signal and that measured at the sensor section

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Trend of the CP coefficient for the tested probe as a function of the yaw angle

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Trend of the coefficient as a function of the yaw angle

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Trend of KS coefficient as a function of the yaw angle

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

Trend of the KT coefficient as function of the yaw angle

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

Centrifugal blower facility and probe measurement position

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 18

Measured and corrected signals at position p1 (at midspan)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 19

Yaw angle and total and static pressures at midspan

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 20

Yaw angle referenced to radial direction over a revolution

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 21

Normalized static pressure over a revolution

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 22

Normalized total pressure over a revolution

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 23

Absolute velocity over a revolution

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 24

Attenuations predicted by the numerical model for the modified waveguide probe (WSG-M) with different dimensions of the transmitting duct diameter (Φ) and length (L)

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In