0
Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Aircraft Engine

Performance Investigation of Cycle-Integrated Parallel Hybrid Turboshafts

[+] Author and Article Information
Patrick C. Vratny

Bauhaus Luftfahrt e.V.,
Willy-Messerschmitt-Straße 1,
Taufkirchen 82024, Germany
e-mail: patrick.vratny@bauhaus-luftfahrt.net

Sascha Kaiser

Bauhaus Luftfahrt e.V.,
Willy-Messerschmitt-Straße 1,
Taufkirchen 82024, Germany
e-mail: sascha.kaiser@bauhaus-luftfahrt.net

Arne Seitz

Bauhaus Luftfahrt e.V.,
Willy-Messerschmitt-Straße 1,
Taufkirchen 82024, Germany
e-mail: arne.seitz@bauhaus-luftfahrt.net

Stefan Donnerhack

MTU Aero Engines AG,
Dachauerstrasse 665,
Munich 80995, Germany
e-mail: stefan.donnerhack@mtu.de

Contributed by the Aircraft Engine Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received June 22, 2016; final manuscript received July 18, 2016; published online September 27, 2016. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 139(3), 031201 (Sep 27, 2016) (9 pages) Paper No: GTP-16-1265; doi: 10.1115/1.4034498 History: Received June 22, 2016; Revised July 18, 2016

Motivated by the long-term target settings for research and innovation in Europe and in North America, initial investigations of parallel hybrid electric power plant systems have indicated significant in-flight fuel reduction potentials for short range air transport. Based on this topology, a special variant, namely the cycle-integrated parallel hybrid (CIPH), has been investigated. In this special configuration, electric motors supplied by batteries are powering an array of compressor stages of a power plant that are mechanically decoupled from the turbine section. The potentials with regard to in-flight fuel reduction and efficiency improvement of this concept are derived for a 12-ton-helicopter accommodating 19 passengers on a 450 nm mission. For the presented CIPH concept, the axial compressor section of a baseline turboshaft (TS) delivering a maximum shaft power of 3300 kW is electrified with the help of linear electric motors (LEMs). The highest potential for this arrangement was identified in part load for moderate degrees of power hybridization—the share between installed electric power and total power—of around 20%. The first assessment has revealed that this additional degrees-of-freedom allows to almost double the overall efficiency, compared to a conventional power with same technology time horizon, and a reduction in power-specific fuel consumption (PSFC) of roughly 45%. The range capability of a hybrid-powered helicopter has been decreased by more than 50%, mainly driven by the battery mass. However, a fuel burn, and thus, in-flight CO2 reduction of more than 40% against the reference at decreased mission range have been found.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2017 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

ACARE, 2012, “ Strategic Research and Innovation Agenda—Volume 1,” Advisory Council for Aviation Research and innovation in Europe, Brussels, Belgium.
Stückl, S. , van Toor, J. , and Lobentanzer, H. , 2012, “ VOLTAIR—The All Electric Propulsion Concept Platform—A Vision for Atmospheric Friendly Flight,” 28th International Congress of the Aeronautical Sciences, Paper No. ICAS 2012-4.7.2.
Isikveren, A. T. , Seitz, A. , Vratny, P. C. , Pornet, C. , Plötner, K. O. , and Hornung, M. , 2012, “ Conceptual Studies of Universally-Electric Systems Architectures Suitable for Transport Aircraft,” Deutscher Luft- und Raumfahrt Kongress 2012, Berlin, Paper No. DLRK2012-281368.
Bradley, M. K. , and Droney, C. K. , 2011, “ Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research: Phase I Final Report,” Huntington Beach, CA, Report No. NASA/CR -2011-216847.
Isikveren, A. T. , Pornet, C. , Vratny, P. C. , and Schmidt, M. , 2015, “ Conceptual Studies of Future Hybrid-Electric Regional Aircraft,” ISABE 2015, Paper No. ISABE-2015-20285.
Pornet, C. , Gologan, C. , Vratny, P. C. , Seitz, A. , Schmitz, O. , Isikveren, A. T. , and Hornung, M. , 2014, “ Methodology for Sizing and Performance Assessment of Hybrid Energy Aircraft,” J. Aircr., 52(1), pp. 1–12.
Brown, G. V. , 2011, “ Weights and Efficiencies of Electric Components of a Turboelectric Aircraft Propulsion System,” AIAA Paper No. 2011-225-396.
EASA, 2012, “ Certification Specifications for Large Rotorcraft CS-29,” European Aviation Safety Agency, Cologne, Germany.
Lorenz, L. , Seitz, A. , Kuhn, H. , and Sizmann, A. , 2013, “ Hybrid Power Trains for Future Mobility,” Deutscher Luft- und Raumfahrt Kongress 2013, Paper No. DLRK2013-301316.
Schmitz, O. , 2012, “ Fahrzeugtriebwerk, Fahrzeug mit diesem Fahrzeugtriebwerk und Verfahren zum Betrieb dieses Fahrzeugtriebswerkes,” Patent No. DE102012015104.
Vratny, P. C. , Kuhn, H. , and Hornung, M. , 2015, “ Influences of Voltage Variations on Electric Power Architectures for Hybrid Energy Aircraft,” Deutscher Luft- und Raumfahrtkongress 2015, Paper No. DLRK2015-370198.
Vratny, P. C. , Gologan, C. , Pornet, C. , Isikveren, A. T. , and Hornung, M. , 2013, “ Battery Pack Modeling Methods for Universally-Electric Aircraft,” CEAS 2013, pp. 525–535.
Vratny, P. C. , 2012, A Battery Powered Transport Aircraft, AV Akademikerverlag, Saarbrücken, Germany.
Shahat El, A. , Keyhani, A. , and Shewy El, H. , 2010, “ Sizing a High Speed PM Generator for Green Energy Applications,” J. Electr. Syst., 6(4), pp. 501–516.
Eichenberg, D. J. , 2006, “ Development of a 32 Inch Diameter Levitated Ducted Fan Conceptual Design,” Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, OH, Technical Report No. NASA/TM-2006-214481.
Pyrhönen, J. , Jokinen, T. , and Hrabovocá, V. , 2008, Design of Rotating Electrical Machines, Wiley, Chichester, UK.
Steiner, H. , Seitz, A. , Wieczorek, K. , Plötner, K. , Isikveren, A. T. , and Hornung, M. , 2012, “ Multi-Disciplinary Design and Feasibility Study of Distributed Propulsion Systems,” 28th International Congress of the Aeronautical Sciences, Paper No. ICAS 2012-1.7.5.
Lanchester, F. W. , 1941, “ Contra-Props,” Flight, pp. 418–419.
Stewart, W. L. , 1955, “ Investigation of Rotating Components of Counterrotating Two-Spool Engines,” National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, Washington, Technical Report No. NACA-RM-E54J13.
Alexiou, A. , Roumeliotis, I. , Aretakis, N. , Tsalavoutas, A. , and Mathioudakis, K. , 2012, “ Modeling Contra-Rotating Turbomachinery Components for Engine Performance Simulations: The Geared Turbofan With Contra-Rotating Core Case,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 134(11), p. 111701. [CrossRef]
Lewis, R. I. , 1996, Turbomachinery Performance Analysis, Elsevier Science and Technology Books, London.
Seitz, A. , 2012, “ Advanced Methods for Propulsion System Integration in Aircraft Conceptual Design,” Ph.D. thesis, Technische Universität München, München, Germany.
Kurzke, J. , 2007, “ GasTurb 11—Design and Off-Design Performance of Gas Turbines,” GasTurb GmbH, Germany.
Shamiyeh, M. , 2015, “ Conceptual Design of a Hybrid Electric Rotorcraft,” Master thesis, Technische Universität München, München, Germany.
Prouty, R. , 1990, Helicopter Performance, Stability, and Control, 2nd ed., Krieger Publishing Company, Malabar, FL.
Freeman, C. , and Cumpsty, N. A. , 1992, “ Method for the Prediction of Supersonic Compressor Blade Performance,” J. Propul. Power, 8(1), pp. 199–208. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Common topologies in hybrid electric vehicles with a battery supplied electrical chain: (a) serial hybrid, (b) parallel hybrid, and (c) serial–parallel hybrid

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Schematic illustration of the possible impact adding electric energy to the engine cycle

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Simplified sketch of the used electric power architecture (in total, six electric motors per engine)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Conceptual example for the integration of a linear electric motor drive on a fan rotor taken from Ref. [17]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Schematic configuration of the simulated hybrid electric turboshaft power plant

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Simplified flow path sketch of the hybrid electric turboshaft with counter rotating axial compressor featuring linear electric motor drive

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Impact of different off-design degrees of hybridization in part load at ISA, SL on the overall efficiency and power-specific fuel consumption

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Impact of different off-design hybrid ratios on the electric counter rotating compressor performance. Map based on Ref. [26].

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Mass comparison of the reference helicopter and the CIPH helicopter at the 220 nm mission

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In