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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Turbomachinery

Experimental Evaluation of Compressor Blade Fouling

[+] Author and Article Information
Rainer Kurz

Solar Turbines, Incorporated,
San Diego, CA 92119
e-mail: rkurz@solarturbines.com

Grant Musgrove

Southwest Research Institute,
San Antonio, TX 78238
e-mail: grant.musgrove@swri.org

Klaus Brun

Southwest Research Institute,
San Antonio, TX 78238
e-mail: klaus.brun@swri.org

Contributed by the Turbomachinery Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received July 11, 2016; final manuscript received July 13, 2016; published online October 4, 2016. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 139(3), 032601 (Oct 04, 2016) (7 pages) Paper No: GTP-16-1328; doi: 10.1115/1.4034501 History: Received July 11, 2016; Revised July 13, 2016

Fouling of compressor blades is an important mechanism leading to performance deterioration in gas turbines over time. Experimental and simulation data are available for the impact of specified amounts of fouling on the performance as well as the amount of foulants entering the engine for defined air filtration systems and ambient conditions. This study provides experimental data on the amount of foulants in the air that actually stick to a blade surface for different conditions. Quantitative results both indicate the amount of dust as well as the distribution of dust on the airfoil, for a dry airfoil, and also the airfoils that were wet from ingested water, in addition to, different types of oil. The retention patterns are correlated with the boundary layer shear stress. The tests show the higher dust retention from wet surfaces compared to dry surfaces. They also provide information about the behavior of the particles after they impact on the blade surface, showing for a certain amount of wet film thickness, the shear forces actually wash the dust downstream and off the airfoil. Further, the effect of particle agglomeration of particles to form larger clusters was observed, which would explain the disproportional impact of very small particles on boundary layer losses.

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References

Kurz, R. , and Brun, K. , 2012, “ Fouling Mechanisms in Axial Compressors,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 134(3), p. 032401. [CrossRef]
Brekke, O. , and Bakken, L. E. , 2010, “ Performance Deterioration of Intake Air Filters for Gas Turbines in Offshore Installations,” ASME Paper No. GT2010-22454.
Wilcox, M. , Baldwin, R. , Garcia-Hernandez, A. , and Brun, K. , 2010, “ Guideline for Gas Turbine Inlet Air Filtration Systems,” Gas Machinery Research Council, Dallas, TX.
Orhon, D. , Kurz, R. , Hiner, S. , and Benson, J. , 2015, “ Gas Turbine Air Filtration Systems for Offshore Applications,” Turbosymposium, Houston, TX, Tutorial T11.
Schroth, T. , Rothmann, A. , and Schmitt, D. , 2007, “ Nutzwert eines dreistufigen Luftfiltersystems mit innovativer Technologie fuer stationaere Gasturbinen,” VGB Powertech, 87, pp. 48–51.
CEN-CENELEC, 20002, “  Particulate Air Filters for General Ventilation—Determination of the Filtration Performance,” CEN-CENELEC, Brussels, Belgium, European Standard No. EN 779.
Fuchs, N. A. , 1964, The Mechanics of Aerosols, Pergamon Press, Oxford, UK.
Kurz, R. , Brun, K. , and Wollie, M. , 2009, “ Degradation Effects on Industrial Gas Turbines,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 131(6), p. 062401. [CrossRef]
Syverud, E. , and Bakken, L. E. , 2006, “ The Impact of Surface Roughness on Axial Compressor Deterioration,” ASME Paper No. GT2006-90004.
Meher-Homji, C. B. , Chaker, M. , and Bromley, A. F. , 2009, “ The Fouling of Axial Flow Compressors—Causes, Effects, Susceptibility and Sensitivity,” ASME Paper No. GT2009-59239.
Vigueras Zuniga, M. O. , 2007, “ Analysis of Gas Turbine Compressor Fouling and Washing On Line,” Ph.D. thesis, Cranfield University, Cranfield, UK. https://dspace.lib.cranfield.ac.uk/handle/1826/2448
Morini, M. , Pinelli, M. , Spina, P. R. , and Venturini, M. , 2011, “ Numerical Analysis of the Effects of Non-Uniform Surface Roughness on Compressor Stage Performance,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 133(7), p. 072402. [CrossRef]
Aldi, N. , Morini, M. , Pinelli, M. , Spina, P. R. , Suman, A. , and Venturini, M. , 2014, “ Performance Evaluation of Non-Uniformly Fouled Axial Compressor Stages by Means of Computational Fluid Dynamics Analyses,” ASME J. Turbomach., 136(2), p. 021016. [CrossRef]
Suman, A. , Kurz, R. , Aldi, N. , Morini, M. , Brun, K. , Pinelli, M. , and Spina, P. R. , 2016, “ Quantitative Computational Fluid Dynamics Analyses of Particle Deposition on a Subsonic Axial Compressor Blade,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 138(1), p. 012603. [CrossRef]
Suman, A. , Kurz, R. , Aldi, N. , Morini, M. , Brun, K. , Pinelli, M. , and Spina, P. R. , 2014, “ Quantitative CFD Analyses of Particle Deposition on a Transonic Axial Compressor Blade—Part I: Particle Zones Impact,” ASME J. Turbomach., 137(2), p. 021009. [CrossRef]
Suman, A. , Morini, M. , Kurz, R. , Aldi, N. , Brun, K. , Pinelli, M. , and Spina, P. R. , 2014, “ Quantitative CFD Analyses of Particle Deposition on a Transonic Axial Compressor Blade—Part II: Impact Kinematics and Particle Sticking Analysis,” ASME J. Turbomach., 137(2), p. 021010. [CrossRef]
Nowak, L. , 1992, “ Computational Investigations of a NACA 0012 Airfoil in Low Reynolds Number Flows,” Master's thesis, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA. http://oai.dtic.mil/oai/oai?verb=getRecord&metadataPrefix=html&identifier=ADA257300
Petrović, D. V. , Mitrović, Č. B. , Trišovic, N. R. , and Golubović, Z. Z. , 2011, “ On the Particles Size Distributions of Diatomaceous Earth and Perlite Granulations,” Strojniški Vestn. J. Mech. Eng., 57(11), pp. 843–850. [CrossRef]
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Figures

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Fig. 1

Comparison of fractional efficiency for filter elements from different suppliers and different face velocities in new and dirty conditions [2]

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Fig. 8

Particle trajectories in a turbine cascade for Stokes flow (Σ ⇒ 0) and for Σ = 5600 at Stokes numbers of St = 0.0035, 0.35, and 3.5 [19]

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Fig. 7

Particle deposition (particle size 0.15 μm) for a subsonic compressor airfoil, concerning the second, sixth, and tenth strips (14%, 50%, and 86% of the blade span, respectively) [14]

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Fig. 6

Friction factor and displacement thickness for a NACA0012 Section at Re = 540,000 [17]

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Fig. 5

Multiple windows are placed around the airfoil to allow flow visualization

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Fig. 4

Normalized inlet dynamic pressure along the vertical and horizontal directions from the wind tunnel centerline

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Fig. 3

Open-loop wind tunnel is used for the fouling tests

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Fig. 2

Filtration mechanisms

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Fig. 10

Select leading edge details: (a) airfoil wet with water (test 2) and (b) airfoil wet with thin layer of 20 W viscosity oil, oil wiped off (test 5)

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Fig. 11

Dust samples from the airfoil surface: (a) reference sample from dust feed, (b) after test 1, (c) after test 2, and (d) after test 5, agglomeration similar to other tests with oil

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Fig. 9

Fouling of the test airfoil. Arrow indicates flow direction: (a) clean before test, (b) dry, (c) airfoil wet with water, (d) airfoil wet with 5 W viscosity oil layer, (e) airfoil wet with 20 W viscosity oil layer, and (f) airfoil wet with thin layer of 20 W viscosity oil after oil was wiped off

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