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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Heat Transfer

Thermal Modeling of an Intermediate Pressure Steam Turbine by Means of Conjugate Heat Transfer—Simulation and Validation

[+] Author and Article Information
Dominik Born

GE Power,
Brown Boveri Strasse 7,
Baden CH-5401, Switzerland
e-mail: dominik.born@ge.com

Peter Stein

GE Power,
Brown Boveri Strasse 7,
Baden CH-5401, Switzerland
e-mail: peterjoachim.stein@ge.com

Gabriel Marinescu

GE Power,
Brown Boveri Strasse 7,
Baden CH-5401, Switzerland
e-mail: gabriel.marinescu@ge.com

Stefan Koch

Institute of Energy Systems and Fluid
Engineering (IEFE),
University ZHAW,
Amriswilerstrasse 32a,
Romanshorn 8590, Switzerland
e-mail: koch.stefan@bluewin.ch

Daniel Schumacher

Institute of Energy Systems and Fluid
Engineering (IEFE),
University ZHAW,
Waldeggstrasse 36,
Winterthur 8405, Switzerland
e-mail: daniel.schumacher.ch@gmail.com

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received June 20, 2016; final manuscript received July 19, 2016; published online October 4, 2016. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 139(3), 031903 (Oct 04, 2016) (10 pages) Paper No: GTP-16-1241; doi: 10.1115/1.4034513 History: Received June 20, 2016; Revised July 19, 2016

Today's power market asks for highly efficient turbines which can operate at a maximum flexibility, achieving a high lifetime and all of this on competitive product costs. In order to increase the plant cycle efficiency, during the past years, nominal steam temperatures and pressures have been continuously increased. To fulfill the lifetime requirements and still achieve the product cost requirements, accurate mechanical integrity based assessments on cyclic lifetime became more and more important. For this reason, precise boundary conditions in terms of local temperatures as well as heat transfer coefficients are essential. In order to gain such information and understand the flow physics behind them, more and more complex thermal modeling approaches are necessary, like computational fluid dynamics (CFD) or even conjugate heat transfer (CHT). A proper application of calculation rules and methods is crucial regarding the determination of thermal stresses, thermal expansion, lifetime, or creep. The aim is to exploit during turbine developments the limits of the designs with the selected materials. A huge effort especially in validation and understanding of those methodologies was done with detailed numerical investigations associated to extensive measurement studies at onsite turbines in operation. This paper focuses on the validation of numerical models based on CHT calculations against experimental data of a large intermediate pressure steam turbine module regarding the temperature distribution at the inner and outer casing for nominal load as well as transient shut-down.

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References

Figures

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Fig. 6

Computational domains and meshing

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Fig. 7

Blade path exhaust setup

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Fig. 8

Gland- and piston leakage setup

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Fig. 9

Blade tip leakage setup

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Fig. 10

Outer casing insulation

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Fig. 11

Schematic insulation

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Fig. 12

Steam temperature within turbine cavity

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Fig. 13

Surface temperature of inner and outer casing

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Fig. 14

Temperature distribution along turbine cross section

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Fig. 15

Validation of inner casing metal temperature distribution—measurements versus CFD

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Fig. 16

Validation of outer casing metal temperature distribution—measurements versus CFD

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Fig. 17

Validation of outer casing metal temperature distribution—measurements versus CFD

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Fig. 18

Heat transfer calculation model

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Fig. 19

Principle of the over-conductivity model in a fluid region

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Fig. 5

IP turbine, temperature variation at thermocouples T11.1, T24.1, Tm33, and Tm42 (source Ref. [2])

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Fig. 4

IP turbine, temperature variation at thermocouples T11.1, T24.1, T32.2, and Tm42 (source Ref. [3])

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Fig. 3

IP turbine, thermocouples located on inner casing upper half

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Fig. 2

IP turbine during instrumentation phase (source Ref. [4])

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Fig. 1

Flow within a turbine cavity

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Fig. 20

Rotating walls in the model

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Fig. 21

Temperature distribution at the start of the natural cooling

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Fig. 22

Temperature measurement locations (OP = optical probe; T1–6 = wall temperature measurements)

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Fig. 23

Comparison measurement versus calculation at the measurement location OP

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Fig. 24

Comparison measurement versus calculation at the wall temperature measurement locations

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