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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Emissions of a Wet Premixed Flame of Natural Gas and a Mixture With Hydrogen at High Pressure

[+] Author and Article Information
P. Stathopoulos

Chair of Fluid Dynamics
Hermann-Föttinger-Institut,
Technische Universität Berlin,
Müller-Breslau-Str. 8,
Berlin 10623, Germany
e-mail: stathopoulos@tu-berlin.de

P. Kuhn, J. Wendler, T. Tanneberger, S. Terhaar, C. O. Paschereit

Chair of Fluid Dynamics
Hermann-Föttinger-Institut,
Technische Universität Berlin,
Müller-Breslau-Str. 8,
Berlin 10623, Germany

C. Schmalhofer, P. Griebel, M. Aigner

German Aerospace Center (DLR),
Institute of Combustion Technology,
Pfaffenwaldring 38-40,
Stuttgart 70569, Germany

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received July 13, 2016; final manuscript received August 17, 2016; published online November 2, 2016. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 139(4), 041507 (Nov 02, 2016) (8 pages) Paper No: GTP-16-1332; doi: 10.1115/1.4034687 History: Received July 13, 2016; Revised August 17, 2016

It is generally accepted that combustion of hydrogen and natural gas mixtures will become more prevalent in the near future, to allow for a further penetration of renewables in the European power generation system. The current work aims at the demonstration of the advantages of steam dilution, when highly reactive combustible mixtures are used in a swirl-stabilized combustor. To this end, high-pressure experiments have been conducted with a generic swirl-stabilized combustor featuring axial air injection to increase flashback safety. The experiments have been conducted with two fuel mixtures, at various pressure levels up to 9 bar and at four levels of steam dilution up to 25% steam-to-air mass flow ratio. Natural gas has been used as a reference fuel, whereas a mixture of natural gas and hydrogen (10% hydrogen by mass) represented an upper limit of hydrogen concentration in a natural gas network with hydrogen enrichment. The results of the emissions measurements are presented along with a reactor network model. The latter is applied as a means to qualitatively understand the chemical processes responsible for the observed emissions and their trends with increasing pressure and steam injection.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Combustion system as used in the atmospheric experiments

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Fig. 2

Combustor with optical access integrated in the HBK-S

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Fig. 3

Fuel temperature for 100% NG at p = 4 bar (higher values) and the mixture of 90% NG and 10% by mass hydrogen at p = 5 bar (lower values) and steam contents (• — Ω = 0, ▪ - - Ω = 0.1, and ♦ ⋯Ω=0.2 (Ω = 0.25 for the mix))

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Fig. 4

Normalized OH*-chemiluminescence images for 100% natural gas at constant equivalence ratio of ϕ=0.8

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Fig. 5

Normalized OH*-chemiluminescence images for 90% natural gas and 10% hydrogen by mass at constant equivalence ratio of ϕ=0.85. Left column from Ref. [16]. (The top right image (9 bar and Ω = 0) represents a 95% natural gas and 5% hydrogen by mass flame.)

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Fig. 6

Axial flame position as a function of steam dilution and pressure for both fuel mixtures: natural gas (• — p = 1 bar, p = 4 bar, and p = 9 bar) and fuel mixture (• - - p = 1 bar, p = 5 bar, and p = 9 bar)

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Fig. 7

Radial flame position as a function of steam dilution and pressure for both mixtures: natural gas (• — p = 1 bar, p = 4 bar, and p = 9 bar) and fuel mixture (• - - p = 1 bar, p = 5 bar, and p = 9 bar)

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Fig. 8

NOx emissions for 100% natural gas at various pressure levels (• — p = 1 bar, p = 4 bar, and p = 9 bar) and steam contents (• — Ω = 0, ▪ - - Ω = 0.1, and ♦ ⋯Ω=0.2)

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Fig. 9

NOx emissions for 90% natural gas and 10% hydrogen by mass at various pressure levels (by Ω = 0 and p = 9 bar 95% natural gas and 5% hydrogen by mass) (• — P = 1 bar, P = 5 bar, and P = 9 bar) and steam contents (• — Ω = 0, ▪ - - Ω=0.1, and ♦ ⋯Ω=0.25)

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Fig. 10

CO emissions for 100% natural gas at various pressure levels (• — p = 1 bar, p = 4 bar, and p = 9 bar) and steam contents (• — Ω = 0, ▪ - - Ω=0.1, and ♦ ⋯Ω=0.2)

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Fig. 11

CO emissions for 90% natural gas and 10% hydrogen by mass at various pressure levels (by Ω = 0 and p = 9 bar 95% natural gas and 5% hydrogen by mass) (• — p = 1 bar, p = 5 bar, and p = 9 bar) and steam contents (• — Ω = 0, ▪ - - Ω=0.1, and ♦ ⋯Ω=0.25)

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Fig. 12

Schematic of the reactor network model

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Fig. 13

Measured and simulated NOx emissions for natural gas (top) and H2-enriched natural gas (bottom) for various pressures (• — p = 1 bar, p = 4 bar (top) and p = 5 bar (bottom), and p = 9 bar) and steam contents (• — Ω = 0, ▪ - - Ω=0.1, and ♦ ⋯Ω=0.2 (top) and Ω = 0.25 (bottom))

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Fig. 14

Contributions of the NOx formation pathways in the H2-enriched natural gas flame at 1 bar (left) and 9 bar (right) with steam contents Ω = 0 (top) and Ω = 0.25 (bottom)

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